The Grapes of Wrath

Answer the following questions in paragraph form on a separate sheet of paper.

Five sentences make a paragraph.

  1. What is the importance of the government camp?
  1. What is the meaning of the book’s title?
  1. How does Rose of Sharon’s character develop throughout the novel?
  1. What two major sins does Steinbeck condemn the landowners for?
  1. What is the importance of the way the tractor is used in the early chapters?
  1. Discuss the importance of the boxcar as both actual object and as a symbol.
  1. What is the significance of Casey’s death?
  1. How does Tom’s character change throughout the novel?
  1. What does the word “Okie” mean, and what emotions does it reflect in both the people who use the word and those to whom it refers?


The Grapes of Wrath

Discussion Questions – answer in complete sentence form on a separate sheet of paper

  1. Are we meant to conclude that Tom’s killing of the deputy is justified?
  2. What makes Casy believe that “maybe all men got one big soul ever’body’s a part of”?
  3. Why does Steinbeck devote a chapter to the land turtle’s progress on the highway?
  4. Why does Pa yield his traditional position in the family to Ma?
  5. What does Ma mean when she says, “Bearin’ an’ dyin’ is two pieces of the same thing”?
  6. As Tom leaves the family, he says, “I’ll be ever’where—wherever you look”. In what sense does he mean “everywhere”?
  7. Why does Steinbeck interrupt the Joads’ narrative with short chapters of commentary and description?
  8. Why does Rose of Sharon smile as she feeds the starving man with milk intended for her baby?
  9. What does Steinbeck mean when he writes, “In the souls of the people the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, growing heavy for the vintage”?)
  10. Why do different characters insist at different points in the book, “A fella got to eat”?
  11. Why does the book start with drought and end with floods?
  12. Is the family intact at the end of the novel?
  13. Why does Uncle John set the dead baby adrift rather than bury it?
  14. What is the source of Ma’s conviction that “we’re the people—we go on”?
  15. Does nature function as a force for either good or evil in this book?

For Further Reflection – answer in paragraph form

  1. As his land is destroyed, an anonymous tenant says, “We’ve got a bad thing made by men, and by God that’s something we can change”. Is Steinbeck suggesting that a just social order is possible?
  2. When the narrator says “men ate what they had not raised, had no connection with the bread”, the implication is that this break diminishes humanity. Can spirituality be maintained with increasing automation?
  3. Casy tells Tom about a prisoner whose view of history is that “ever’ time they’s a little step fo’ward, she may slip back a little, but she never slips clear back . . . they wasn’t no waste”. Do you agree with this view?


The Grapes of Wrath

Ch. 26 Quiz:


  • One month in Weedpatch and the Joads are down to a day’s worth of grease, two of flour, and ten potatoes.
  • In all there’s been five days work for Tom.
  • Ma decides they’ll have to leave.
  • Al will miss his blond, Ruthie and Winfield (who’s not well) the croquet, and Tom the dances.
  • Going toward cotton in Tulare they have a flat tire.
  • A man from the Hooper Ranch east of Pixley tells them there’s work picking peaches at five cents a box.
  • Cops lead them past shouting men. They’re told to find House 63.
  • The family picked the rest of the day for a dollar and everybody’s tired.
  • It takes the whole dollar to buy fat, gristly hamburger, potatoes, bread and coffee.
  • Ma to the storekeeper: “I’m learnin’ one thing good … If you’re in trouble or hurt or need—go to poor people. They’re the only ones that’ll help.”
  • Guards complain to each other about government camps spoiling the Okies.
  • Tom goes to see the pickets and runs into Casy who explains they were making two and a half cents and talks about the union struggle.
  • Vigilantes chase them under a bridge.
  • Casy: “You fellas don’ know what you’re doin’. You’re helpin’ to starve kids.” His skull is crushed with a pick handle.
  • Tom takes the weapon and kills George. They crush his nose but he escapes back to the hut. Next morning Tom tells what happened, plans to leave, but Ma tells him to stay.
  • Winfield gets sick from hunger.
  • At night they put Tom between two mattresses in the truck and all leave the farm, heading for Highway 101.
  • Ma: “Gives ya funny feelin’ to be hunted like. I’m gittin’ mean.” Pa: “Ever’body’s gittin’ mean…. Down that gov’ment camp we wasn’ mean.”
  • They go about twenty miles and find a bunch of boxcars and a sign: COTTON PICKERS WANTED.
  • Tom says they should stay in a boxcar and he can hide in culvert in the brush by the creek.
  • Ma starts to take over as head of family
  • Family starts to turn on each other
  • Al talks about leaving all the time; Pa yells at Al for complaining.
  • Store at ranch has higher prices than in town.
  • Page 515: Who was J.P. Morgan? (owned G.E., U.S. Steel, 5000 miles of railroad)


The Grapes of Wrath

Chapters 27-30


  • All about cotton picking.
  • “Side-meat tonight, by God! … Stick out a han’ to the little fella, he’s wore out. … The ol’ woman’ll make some nice biscuits tonight, ef she ain’t too tired.”


  • The Joads pick cotton for a month, and every night they have meat, and the boxcar they share with another family is “almost nicer than anything we had ‘cept the gov’ment camp.”
  • By the time later-arrivers come they’re aristocrats.
  • While Ma’s cooking dinner, Ruthie brags to a girl that her brother (who’s hiding from killing a man) can whip her brother.
  • Ma takes food and seven dollars to Tom’s cave in the willows.
  • She wants him to go hundreds of miles away, but he’s decided to do what Casy did.
  • He remembers some scripture Casy told him once (Ecclesiastes 4).
  • Tom: “maybe like Casy says, a fella ain’t got a soul of his own, but on’y a piece of a big one. … I’ll be ever’where—wherever you look.”
  • Returning, Ma runs into a man looking for pickers and says they’ll be there in the morning.
  • Mr. Wainwright worries about his grown daughter and Al.
  • Pa thinks about the old place. Ma: “This here’s purtier—better lan’.”
  • Ma notes that a man lives in a jerk, a woman in flow.
  • Al announces he and Aggie are aiming to get married.
  • The families celebrate with pancakes and syrup.
  • They wake early for the day’s picking.
  • There’re so many the field’s picked clean by eleven.
  • It rains heavily on the way back and Rosasharn gets chilled.
  • Pa, Al and John fetch firewood all afternoon. It rains all night.


  • Rain. Winter. Floods. No work. No relief. Illness. Mud. Begging. Hunger. Stealing. Sheriffs.
  • No work till spring. No work, no money, no food (unlike horses).
  • “The women watched the men, watched to see whether the break had come at last.” “…the break would never come as long as fear could turn to wrath.”
  • “Tiny points of grass came through the earth, and in a few days the hills were pale green with the beginning year.”


  • After three days of rain Pa worries the creek may flood if they don’t build a bank against it.
  • Rosasharn’s baby comes early, so they can’t leave.
  • Eighteen men help Pa build a bank.
  • As a scream comes from the boxcar the water rises over the first thrown dirt.
  • They keep working on the levee through the evening and the screaming.
  • A falling tree wrecks the levee and all scramble for the boxcar.
  • Al tries the truck but it’s under water.
  • The baby doesn’t breathe.
  • As the water rises, Al suggests building a structure in the boxcar to hold things dry.
  • Uncle John is given the task of burying the baby.
  • Instead he lets it float away in the stream: “Go down in the street an’ rot an’ tell ’em that way.”
  • The water rises to six inches above the floor.
  • All but Al, who’s staying with Aggie and their stuff, wade up to the highway and Ma spots a barn on a hill.
  • Inside the barn they find a man and a boy.
  • The man is nearly starved, couldn’t keep down bread the boy stole the day before.
  • After Ma makes everyone else leave, Rose of Sharon nurses the man.


Grapes of Wrath


Tom pulls over the speed bump into the government camp and then to Number Four Sanitary Unit.

The watchman explains governance: each of five units elects a Central Committee man, and they make the laws.

How they allowed preachers but no collections, and no preachers came. All sleep.

Tom wakes and finds a girl nursing a baby while cooking on an iron stove.

He goes with her men to find work at Mr. Thomas’ who informs them the Farmers’ Association (Bank of the West) has switched the wage from thirty cents to twenty-five (they also sent the men who burned the camp; and they’re going to the dance on Saturday).

“A red is any son-of-a-bitch that wants thirty cents an hour when we’re paying twenty-five.”

Ruthie and Winfield discover the toilets, then show them to Ma who is embarrassed to find out she’s using the men’s and that the Ladies Committee is due.

Mr. Rawley visits and has coffee.

Pa, John and Al go to look for work.

Rosasharn learns how to shower.

Ma: “Why, I feel like people again.”

Mrs. Shandry complains to Rosasharn about hug-dancin’ on Sat’dy night and that Rawley’s the devil, which he says he isn’t.

The Ladies Committee arrives and show Ma the Sanitary Unit.

They tell Mrs. Joyce to stop stealing toilet paper; to take money and feed her daughters cheese.

Ruthie and Winfield play with Amy, but Ruthie is ostracized.

The men don’t find work; John’s not looking well.

Ma drives Mrs. Shandry away; while Shandry howls, the manager notes she’s not well. Ma tells John to get Pa to buy good stuff for dinner.

  • Discuss the camp, central community, communism/socialism
  • Is Steinbeck promoting socialism/communism?
  • Pg. 393: Watchmen says you’ll have to find out why there aren’t more places like the camp for yourself. Foreshadowing?
  • Pg. 402: Explains how banks and farmer’s associations run things.
  • Pg. 403: Conspiracy to keep wages low.
  • Pg. 406: workers don’t even know what communism is.
    • Why does Steinbeck have them not know? (makes the desire for socialism look natural)
  • Pg. 409: children afraid of toilets
  • Pg. 426: toughness of the people
  • Pg. 432: effects of receiving charity; still true today?
  • Pg. 442: for reasons we don’t know, Pa blames himself for Noah’s leaving


Migrant entertainment.

Stories (the Indian, naked as the sun; an’ bang! an’ you spoiled sumpin better’n you). Movies. Getting drunk. Preachers.

Harmonicas and guitars and fiddles. Texas boy and Cherokee girl dancing.

  • Different forms of entertainment and ways to occupy time.

05/06 – 07/15

Grapes of Wrath

Quiz on chapters 19-21:

  1. Who?
  1. What?
  1. When?
  1. Who?
  1. Who?


California goes from Mexicans to American landgrabbers to businessmen.

With Chinese, Japanese, Mexican and Filipino slaves the farmers grow fewer and richer. Many have never seen the farms they own.

The owners hate Okies; so do the workers.

Life in Hoovervilles. “Pray God some day a kid can eat. And the association of owners knew that some day the praying would stop.”

  • Pg. 316: What is menat by “owners followed Rome”?
  • Pg. 319: Food thrown away rather than given away. Why?

How do we fix this problem?

  • Discuss “Hoovervilles”
  • Pg. 325: Does history have to repeat itself?


Granma’s corpse is left with the county in San Bernardino.

They camp in a Hooverville across a bridge, where a Floyd Knowles explains the labor gimmicks, the handbills, the blacklist.

Casy to Tom: “Almighty God never raised no wages.”

Casy thinks of leaving, but Tom tells him to stay.

Connie tells Rosasharn he’d been better of driving tractor back home.

Ma cooks a stew with fifteen hungry kids looking on; she learns about the camp at Weedpatch and the Sat’dy night dance.

Al helps Floyd with the valves.

A woman scolds Ma for sharing the stew with her kids.

Floyd thinks there’s work in Santa Clara Valley.

Contractor says they need workers in Tulare County; the deputy with him says they’re gonna clean out the camp.

Floyd slugs the deputy when he tries to arrest him, runs away; the deputy shoots a woman’s knuckles off; Tom kicks the deputy unconscious as Floyd runs for the willows. Casy tells Tom to hide.

Casy takes the blame and rides off with the deputies.

Rosasharn says Connie’s gone away. Casy’s noble act makes Uncle John get drunk.

The family decides to leave before the camp gets burned.

Tom goes looking for Uncle John and brings him back after knocking him out.

Their truck is stopped by armed men who tell them to go to Tulare; Tom pulls off till they’re gone (they burn the camp) and he heads south on 99.

  • Pg. 341: Casey giving up on God.
  • Pg. 343: What causes Tom to think something’s going on?
    • (people are quiet; normally even good people will gossip)
  • Pg. 351: the sharing of the stew demonstrates the Joads’ generosity
  • Pg. 356: Al talks of leaving; how long can the family stick together?
  • Pg. 359: “talkin’ red” (will be more of this to come)
  • Pg. 363: Why would Casey sacrifice himself? (earlier conversation with Tom)
  • Pg. 366: Discuss attitudes about women and complainers
  • Pg. 372: Connie leaves
  • Pg. 374: Not unusual for people to leave their family under these conditions
  • Pg. 383: Has a different time come yet?


“And money that might have gone for wages went for gas, for guns, for agents and spies, for blacklists, for drilling.

On the highways the people moved like ants and searched for work, for food. And the anger began to ferment.”

  • Pg. 386: What is the “ache of ownership”
    • How do the men who don’t own the land think they actually do? (credit, jobs)
  • Pg. 387: How do owners manage to pay such low wages?
    • (supply and demand)
  • Pg. 388: Based on Steinbeck’s novel structure, what might we see happen to the Joads in the immediate upcoming chapters?



“In the daylight they scuttled like bugs to the westward; and as the dark caught them, they clustered like bugs near to shelter and to water.” The structure and function of the moving campsite society.

  • Picture of insects crawling across the land.
  • Why do the families group together?

(safety in numbers; misery loves company)

  • Page 265: What is Steinbeck’s message when the families make their own rules?

(people left alone will normally do what is right)

Do you agree?


They drive through the rest of New Mexico and Arizona (driving all night) and arrive at the Colorado River by dawn. At Needles the men take off their clothes and bathe in the river, joined by a father and son who’re going back to the panhandle. He tells how the land is already owned and not worked, how sheriffs push you around, and people call you Okie. How a newspaperman with a million acres is afraid of dying. In the shade Noah tells Tom he’s going downriver to stay. A Jehovite wants to hold a meeting in Granma’s tent, to see her on her way to Jesus, but Ma says no. A sheriff tells Ma he’ll run them out if they’re there tomorrow; she runs him off with an iron pan. Wilson announces they’re not going on (Sairy’s deathly ill). Around four the Joads start. The Needles gas station attendant tells them he wouldn’t have the nerve to cross desert in their Jalopy, then tells his helper: “Them goddamn Okies got no sense and no feeling. They ain’t human.” Around midnight, near Daggett, is the agricultural inspection. Ma say’s Granma’s real sick so they are allowed to push on. They hit Mojave at dawn. They go through Tehachapi Pass and see the valley. Pa: “I never knowed there was anything like her.” Ma: “Thank God! The fambly’s here.” She tells them Granma died before the inspection stop. They drive on down into the valley.

  • Page 313: Tom talks about what Granpa and Granma would have seen if they got to the valley and the only ones who really see it are Ruthie and Winfield.

What does he mean?

  • Page 314: Tom laughs: Hope. It’s amazing how strong hope can be.


Grapes of Wrath: chapters 14-16

Ch. 14

  • “The Western States, nervous as horses before a thunderstorm.”
  • … If from “I have a little food” plus “I have none” the sum is “We have a little food”, the thing is on its way, the movement has direction. …
  • “This is the thing to bomb.”
  • Paine, Marx, Jefferson, Lenin were results, not causes.
  • Chapter discusses reasons for revolution
  • America and Soviet Union
  • Could revolution happen in America again?

Ch. 15

  • The truck stop hamburger stand.
  • Fat man and his wife on the way to Beverly-Wilshire Hotel and the Pacific Ocean stop by (“shitheels”).
  • Then two truckers.
  • Family gets a 15-cent loaf of bread for 10 cents and nickel-a-piece candy two-for-a-penny.
  • The truckers leave two half dollars for two ten-cents cups of Java.
  • Mae: “Truck drivers … an’ after them shitheels.”
  • Page 211: disdain of business, not a flattering description

Is it true? Does it have to be the case for all businesses?

  • Page 214: opinion of money. Can’t usually see it work.
  • Sympathetic diner has his slots rigged
  • Why did truckers leave such a large tip?

Ch. 16

  • Across the panhandle, stop overnight west of Amarillo, and into New Mexico.
  • Rosasharn says she and Connie plan to live in town. He’ll learn radio.
  • Burned out con-rod bearing.
  • Tom suggests he and Casy stay behind.
  • Ma grabs a jack handle to fight Pa with: “I ain’t a-gonna go.”
  • The truck goes on to find a campsite.
  • Tom works on the car, cuts his hand, covers it with piss-mud.
  • Casy philosophizes about mass movement.
  • Al arrives and says Granma’s gone nuts.
  • Back in Santa Rosa a one-eyed junkyard man who hates his boss helps Al and Tom get the part they need.
  • They return to Casy and fix the Dodge with a flashlight from the man.
  • The campsite owner won’t let them stay.
  • A ragged man who’s been to California and is going home to starve tells them all about labor contractors and about how his wife and two kids died out there.
  • As Tom, Casy and Uncle John go back to the Dodge Tom throws a clod that busts the proprietor’s kerosene lamp.
  • Page 222: Al steals a fence rail. Why does Steinbeck have him steal it instead of finding it? (frustration and need of trip; good people forced to steal)
  • Page 223: Rose is paranoid about baby
  • Page 224: Rose speaks of the American Dream
  • Page 225: What is Ma’s final analysis of Rose and Connie’s Dream (it’s just a dream) Why does she think it is just a dream?

Would it be possible for Connie and Rose to make this come true?

What are the barriers to making one’s dreams come true?

  • Page 236: Tom talks about “one foot at a time”. What does he mean? Do most people go through life that way? Why?
  • Pages 244-246: Tom talks to the man at the junkyard. Another example of Tom’s blunt honesty (truck driver, gas station attendant, junkyard man) Does this type of honesty encourage or discourage people? (pg. 247) Should we be that brutally honest all the time? What does Tom’s message seem to be? (stop whining and do something about it)

Do you think Tom’s time in prison had something to do with that?

  • Page 248: Again, Tom being brutally honest. This time with Al. Tells Al not to be defensive all the time.
  • Page 259: Is this the truth about California?
  • Page 263: “bolshevisky” what does this mean?

Read chapters 17-18


The Grapes of Wrath

Chapters 11-13

  • Quiz over chapters 11-13
  1. Who is the first “family member” to die on the trip?
  1. Which family member dies of a stroke?
  1. What is Rose of Sharon constantly worrying about?
  1. What is the name of the family the Joads decide to travel with?
  1. Steinbeck says the people who have lost everything move from “I” to _________.

Ch. 11

  • When a horse quits work there’s life yet; when a tractor’s turned off its cold dead.
  • Cats go wild, and bats and weeds take over deserted farmland.
  • Horse vs. tractor = life vs. death
  • The farm is no longer a living place, it is just a machine now.
  • Page 159: end of the former life.

Ch. 12

  • “Highway 66 is the main migrant road.
  • 66—the long concrete path across the country, waving gently up and down on the map, from the Mississippi to Bakersfield
  • —over the red lands and the gray lands, twisting up into the mountains, crossing the Divide and down into the bright and terrible desert, and across the desert to the mountains again, and into the rich California valleys.”
  • Highway 66 is now called what? Route 66
  • What does it represent here?
  • Hope, rebirth, path to paradise
  • What does it represent now?
  • Fun, adventure, nostalgia
  • Why the difference?
  • Prosperity, progress, and technology make the once necessary entertaining.

Ch. 13

  • Al drives to the highway at Sallislaw and heads west.
  • Ma thinks there may be mountains before California, but “Up ahead they’s a thousan’ lives we might live, but when it comes, it’ll on’y be one.”
  • Near Paden a gas station man is surly till he learns they’ll pay, asks “What’s the country coming to?”, and Tom tells him “you don’t want to know.”
  • They all drink water. The dog gets run over.
  • Granma naps in the restroom.
  • Tom drives through Oklahoma City.
  • Ma worries about his crossing the state line on parole.
  • At Bethany they camp near the Wilsons’ touring car.
  • Granpa has a stroke and dies with Casy saying the Lords Prayer and Granma shouting. He’s buried in the Wilsons’ quilt with Psalms 32:1 written out.
  • They hear of the Wilsons’ hard times.
  • Tom suggests they share the ride with the Wilsons.
  • Ma: “Each’ll help each, an’ we’ll all git to California.”
  • Page 173: Has America stopped moving? (westward expansion)
  • Why do people move?
  • Gas station attendant complains but has no answers and doesn’t really want to hear any.
  • Page 174: Large corporations kill smaller businesses
  • Trip not going well for Joads
  • Forgot water
  • Granpa dies (page 199) Tom says he was tied to the land
  • Page 189: family council changes with the death of Grampa
  • Page 194: looking for paper; what could they have used if it had been brought?

(stationary box)

  • Read chapters 14-16.


Grapes of Wrath

Quiz on chapters 8-10:

  1. Who is asked to go with the Joads but stays behind? (Muley Graves)
  2. Who wants to stay but is taken anyway? (Granpa)
  3. What is Tom’s answer when Muley asks him if he’s going to cross the state line and break parole? (he doesn’t answer)
  4. What personal item does Ma burn? (stationary box)
  5. Do the Joads take Jim Casey with them? (yes)
  • Do “Fishbowl” Discussions

Ch. 8

  • Tom and Casy head for Uncle John’s place.
  • John’s wife died of “appendick.”
  • Tom’s joke about Elsie Graves teasing Willy pleases Casy.
  • They sneak up on Pa who’s fixing a Hudson Sedan converted to a truck.
  • They surprise Ma cooking breakfast; “Come right in mister”; her fork clatters to the floor.
  • Grampa and Granma sleep in the barn (easier night trips). Grampa can’t button his fly. Granma repeats “Pu-raise Gawd for vittory.”
  • How Pa botched Noah’s delivery.
  • The preacher says a grace (“mankin’ was holy when it was one thing”).
  • Rosasharn’s got married and pregnant.
  • Al’s out a-billygoatin’.

Page 100: Mother as the strong center of the family (citadel)

Common theme in American literature

Page 101: Why does Tom bite his lip?

Why does Ma back away?

Page 104: Mother has become somewhat bitter.

Speaks of 10,000 member strong army of run off tenants.

Would it be possible? Is this what the framers had in mind?

Ch. 9

  • Disposing of everything. Sell it. Pack it, leave it or burn it.

Pg. 117: why are men ruthless about the past, but women not?

Women understand that eventually people want to remember the past.

Pg,.118: “buying a plow to plow your own children under”

Karma? Since they are cheating them, they are cheating their own children.

It will come back to them in the future.

Pg. 120: Pilgrim’s Progress

Ch. 10

  • Al takes a truck of junk to Sallisaw.
  • Ma worries about California being too good. Tom tells her to “jus’ take ever’ day.”
  • The preacher asks to go along.
  • The truck returns. Uncle John’s appetites now restrained.
  • The truck is Al’s responsibility.
  • They got eighteen dollars for every moveable thing on the farm.
  • At the conference Pa says they have a hundred fifty-four.
  • Al assesses the truck.
  • Pa figgers close and asks Ma if they can take the preacher. “It ain’t kin we? It’s will we?”
  • Two pigs are slaughtered and they decide to go next morning.
  • Ma burns her stationery box.
  • Muley drops by but won’t go. Grampa won’t either, but they use Ma’s soothin’ sirup.
  • They leave Muley two dogs and the chickens.
  • Ma wants to look back but can’t.

Pgs. 122-123: Ma believes California might not be so great. “Too good to be

true.” Could this be foreshadowing?

Pg. 137: Concept of family hierarchy. Still present in today’s society?

Pgs. 139-140: Ma chides Pa for even considering not taking Casey with them.

Mother as moral center. Helping fellow man.

Pg. 148: Why does Ma burn the stationary box?

Pg. 154: Why doesn’t Tom answer Muley’s question about breaking parole?

Pg. 156: What does Ma looking back allude to? Lot’s wife.

Read chapters 11-13


Grapes of Wrath

Review Reading Logs for chapters 5-7

Ch. 5

  • How the bank agents tell the tenants to leave the land.
  • How the tractors rape the land.
  • How the tractor driver knocks the tenant farmer’s house off its foundation.
  • “Caught in something larger than themselves”

Do we have control over everything in our lives?

Do we feel that we have to do things we don’t want to, but benefit from?

Analogy of bank as monster

Why are there no names or quotation marks when the owners talk to the tenants?

Detached, impersonal, could be anyone

Why do you think the owners tell the tenants to go to California?

Why are there names and quotation marks when the tractor driver talks to tenants?

The driver was one of them – is he a traitor now?

It speaks of men not having connection to the bread – do we?

Why are we sentimental about family farms?

Do we feel the same about other industries?

Why is it so hard to find the right person to blame for the loss of the farm?

John Cougar Mellencamp: “Rain on the Scarecrow”

Steve Earle: “The Rain Came Down”

Discuss elements of the novel present in each song.

Ch. 6

  • The gate is unhung (set to keep in pigs like the one that got away and ate the

Jacobs’ baby).

  • Tom notices that nothing’s stolen the way it was when Albert Rance took his

family to Oklahoma City for Christmas; so everyone must be gone.

  • The turtle continues southwest. Muley tells Tom his family is at Uncle John’s.
  • Tom explains the murder of Herb Turnbull.
  • They cook Muley’s rabbits on an open fire. Tom says prison makes no sense. Casy gets the sperit: he’s gonna hit the road.
  • Muley shows them how to hide from deputy Willy Feeley. They sleep in the open.

Sharing the rabbits: what does Muley have a hold of that is bigger than him?

Community, kindness to fellow man

Muley’s speech about what the owners took.

They took more than just land and homes. They took memories.

People are connected to the land – they are the land

Ch. 7

  • All about used car lots: “Goin’ to California? Here’s jus’ what you need.
  • Looks shot, but they’s thousan’s of miles in her.”


Grapes of Wrath

Students do Discussion Panels on chapters 1-4 using Reading Logs

Chapters 1-4:

  1. Description of the dust bowl. “The men were silent and they did not move often. And the women came out of the houses to stand beside their men – to feel whether this time the men would break.”
  • Difference in families’ reliance on men versus independence of women today
  • American resilience (“Of Plymouth Plantation; Bradford)
  1. Tom Joad gets a lift at a truck stop and tells the driver he’s paroled from prison in McAlester (for murder) and he’s headed home. “But sometimes a guy’ll be a good guy even if some rich bastard makes him carry a [No Riders] sticker.”
    • Disdain for the perceived wealthy.
    • Is this an American ideal?
  1. Turtle’s endless struggle to go southwest. Up on the highway, missed by a car, hit by a truck. His struggle plants an oat head he picked up earlier.
    • The journey is commonplace in American literature.
    • As we travel from one place to another, we pick up things and leave other things behind, whether the journey is external or internal.
    • The journey is foreshadowing for the Joad family.
  1. Tom picks up the turtle. He spots Jim Casy sitting by a tree singing, “Yes, sir, that’s my Savior”. Jim condemns himself for laying with girls he’d earlier filled with the Holy Spirit (“the sperit ain’t in me no more’). The turtle keeps trying to escape Tom’s jacket. Casy explains his beliefs. Tom tells Jim, “Pa always said you had too long a pecker for a preacher”.
    • Little or no respect for religion
    • Traditional in America?

Tom talks about how you can get comfortable with jail.

  • For many in jail, life is better than outside – should this be the case?

(American ideal?)

They talk of how Uncle John tried to eat a whole shot.

  • Humor used to make the story more real.
  • Everyone has a funny story about a relative.

At the Joad place: “They nobody there”.

Begin reading chapters 5-7 in class.


Research Paper

V) Outlining

    1. “Developing an Outline”

Demonstrate using students’ note cards

    1. Sample Outline (Handout)

04/15 – 21/2015

Research Paper

  1. Research
  1. “Internet Research” PowerPoint
  1. Review Tennessee Electronic Library

Gale Databases

  1. Choose Topics
  • American Author
  • Aspect of their work
  1. Library (3 days?)
  • One book
  • One periodical (newspaper, magazine, journal)
  • One reference (encyclopedia, dictionary, atlas)
  • One Internet source
  • One source of student’s choice


Research Paper

  1. Author/Source Cards
  1. “Sample Note Cards” handout
  1. Practice
  • Put examples on screen: Newspapers, Magazines, Dictionaries and Books
  • Each student create three source cards: one book, one newspaper, one magazine, one dictionary


MLA Research Paper

  1. Introduction
    1. Power Point “The Research Paper”
    1. Sample Paper
  • Copy for each student
  • Review
  1. Heading
  1. Introduction
  1. Body
  1. Internal Citations/Documentation
  1. Conclusion
  1. Works Cited
  1. Outline

04/09: Non Fiction Test

04/08:  Test Review:

English III                                                                        1st Period                                                        04/08/2015

Nonfiction Test Review    

 You need to know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms

























You will also need to be familiar with the following ideas:

  • How the themes of Puritan authors William Bradford and Jonathan Edwards effected American ideals and values.
  • How the Declaration of Independence, Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Patrick Henry defined what it means to be an American.
  • What the Transcendentalist writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau tells us about ideas of individualism and one’s place in the world?


American Non-Fiction

Letter From Birmingham Jail”

Common Core Focus: • Allusion

• Elements of an Argument

RI1; RI4; RI6; W1; L3a; L5;

Objective: Recognize Subjectivity

Analyze Details


  • Students complete Vocabulary Study (75) and Vocabulary Practice (76) worksheets
  • Review Martin Luther King Biography (p1202)
  • Review “Text Analysis: Allusion” & “Reading Skill: Elements of an Argument” (p1203)
  • Read from “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (ps 1204-1213)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-4 on page 1215 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 6-8 on page 1215 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (71) and Reading Skill (73) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Check (78) and Question Support (79) worksheets.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (65) to facilitate further discussion.

English III 1st Period 04/06/2015

American Non-Fiction

A New Kind of War”

Common Core Focus: • Subjectivity in Reporting

• Analyze Descriptive Details

RI1; RI6; RI10; W3a,e; L3; L4c; L4d; L5b;

Objective: Recognize Subjectivity



  • Students complete Grammar and Style (357) Worksheet
  • Review Ernest Hemingway Biography (p1094)
  • Review “Text Analysis: Subjectivity in Reporting” & “Reading Strategy: Analyze Descriptive Details” (p1095)
  • Read from “A New Kind of War” (ps 1096-1101)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 1102 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 5-8 on page 1102 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (351) and Reading Skill (353) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Check (355) and Question Support (356c) worksheets.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (345) to facilitate further discussion.


American Non-Fiction

Regionalism” “The Autobiography of Mark Twain”

Common Core Focus: Irony and Overstatement; Predict

RL 3 RL 4; RL 5; RI 1; RI 6; W 3b; SL 1; L 1a; L 1b; L 2; L 3; L 4c;

L 4d; L 5a; L 5b; L 6

Objective: Recognize Irony and Overstatement

Predict Events


  • Review Mark Twain Biography (p659)
  • Review “Text Analysis: Irony and Overstatement” & “Reading Strategy: Predict (p659)
  • Read from “The Autobiography of Mark Twain” (ps 660-669)
  • Read “Epigrams” (p670)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 671 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 4-8 on page 671 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (21) and Reading Skill (23) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Check (28) and Question Support (29) worksheets.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (15) to facilitate further discussion.


American Non-Fiction

Civil War

  • Letter to His Son / Letter to Sarah Ballou Letters by Robert E. Lee and Major Sullivan Ballou
  • A Diary from DixieDiary Entry by Mary Chesnut
  • Speech to the American Equal Rights Association Speech by Sojourner Truth
  • Common Core Focus: Analyze Primary Sources, Synthesize

RI2;RI6; RI8; W1; L4a; L5

Objective: Analyze Primary Sources; Synthesize Non-Fiction Documents

Pre-Lesson: Review Primary Sources on page 592


  • Read texts (p593-596) aloud
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 597 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 5-7 on page 597 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Read for Information (102) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Question Support (106) worksheet.
  • Enrichment: Use Reading Check (105) to facilitate further discussion.


American Non-Fiction

The Gettysburg Address”

Common Core Focus: Audience and Form; Analyze an Author’s Beliefs

RI1; RI4; RI5; RI8; RI9; W1; W1b; W9; L3; L3a

Objective: Identify Audience and Form; Analyze Author’s Beliefs


  • Review Abraham Lincoln Biography (p584)
  • Review Text Analysis: Audience and Form & Reading Strategy: Analyze an Author’s Beliefs (p585)
  • Read “The Gettysburg Address” (p586)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-2 on page 590 aloud. Assessment
  • Students complete Text Analysis (85) and Reading Skill (87) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Question Support (90) worksheet.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (79) to facilitate further discussion.


Write a speech paying tribute to an important event. It may be from the distant past or a more recent time period. Do not give us a list of facts, but concentrate rather on the impact and meaning this event had for those who experienced it and those who came after, including yourself.

03/30 – 31/2015

American Non-Fiction

from “Self-Reliance” and “Nature”

Common Core Focus: Narrator; Reading Older Texts

RI2; RI3; RI9; W2b; W2d; L3; L4b; L5a; L6

Objective: Identify Theme


  • Students complete look up definitions for following words:
    • aversion, decorum, exhilaration, importune, nonconformist, occult
  • Review Ralph Waldo Emerson Biography (p368)
  • Review Text Analysis: Transcendentalism and Reading Skill: Identify Theme (p369))
  • Read from “Self-Reliance” and “Nature” (p370-374)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 375 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 4-5 on page 375 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Remediation: Students complete Vocabulary in Context on page 376
  • Enrichment: Students do Text Criticism (#7) on page 375.

American Non-Fiction

from “Civil Disobedience”

Common Core Focus: Essay; Evaluate Ideas

RI2; RI4; RI5; RI6;RI9; W1a-b; W1d-e; L3a; L4b-c; L6

Objective: Evaluate Ideas


  • Students complete look up definitions for following words:
    • abject, congenial, deliberately, impetuous, misgiving, perturbation, pervade, transgress
  • Review Henry David Thoreau Biography (p378)
  • Review Text Analysis: Essay and Reading Skill: Evaluate Ideas (p379)
  • Read from “Civil Disobedience” (p390-396)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 397 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 4; 7 on page 397 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Remediation: Students complete Vocabulary in Context on page 398
  • Enrichment: Students do Text Criticism (#8) on page .


American Non-Fiction

Benjamin Franklin’s “The Autobiography” “Poor Richard’s Almanack”

Common Core Focus: Autobiography; Author Inferences

RI1; RI5; RI6; L6

Objective: Understand Characteristics of an Autobiography

Make Inferences about Author


  • Students complete Vocabulary Practice (358) Part A #s1-7 independently
  • Review Analogies with students and have them complete part B #s8-9c
  • Review John Smith Biography (p266)
  • Review Text Analysis: Characteristics of Autobiography and Reading Skill: Make Inferences About the Author (p267)
  • Read from “The Autobiography” (p268-274)
  • Discuss Aphorisms
  • Read and discuss aphorisms from “Poor Richard’s Almanack” (p275)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 276 aloud. Assessment
  • Students complete Text Analysis (353) and Reading Strategy (355) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Check (360) and Question Support (361) worksheets.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (347) to facilitate further discussion.

American Non-Fiction

The Declaration of Independence”

Common Core Focus: Cultural Characteristics, Summarize

RI1; RI4; RI5; RI8; W1; L3A; L4C; L6

Objective: Understand Effective Argument

Analyze Text Structure


  • Quick review of colonial life and conflict with British government
  • Students complete Vocabulary Practice (302) and Vocabulary Strategy (303) worksheets
  • Review Text Analysis: Argument and Reading Skill: Analyze Text Structure (p238)
  • Read from “The Declaration of Independence” (p240-244)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-4 on page 245 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 5-6 on page 111 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (297) and Reading Skill (299) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Check (304 worksheet.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (291) to facilitate further discussion.


American Non-Fiction

The Crisis”

Common Core Focus: Persuasive Techniques; Summarize Main Ideas

RI2; RI3; RI5; L4c; L6

Objective: Recognize Persuasive Techniques

Provide a Summary of Main Ideas


  • Students complete Vocabulary Practice (322) and Vocabulary Strategy (323) worksheets
  • Watch Herb Brooks locker room speech from “Miracle”
  • Review Thomas Paine Biography (p248)
  • Review Text Analysis: Persuasive Techniques and Reading Strategy: Summarize Main Ideas (p249)
  • Read “The Crisis” (p250-255)


American Non-Fiction

from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

Common Core Focus: Cultural Characteristics, Summarize

RI3; RI4; RI6; L3; L4a

Objective: Determine an author’s purpose


  • Review Jonathan Edwards Biography (p122)
  • Students complete Vocabulary Study (181) and Vocabulary Practice (182) worksheets
  • Review Text Analysis: Persuasion and Reading Skill: Analyze Emotional Appeals (p123)
  • Read from from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (p124-127)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 130 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 4-7 on page 130 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Reading Skill (179) and Reading Check (184) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Question Support (185) worksheet.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (171) to facilitate further discussion.


American Non-Fiction

A General History of Virginia”

Common Core Focus: Narrator; Reading Older Texts

RI4; RI5; RI6; L3a; L4; L4a,c-d; RI10

Objective: Determine an author’s point-of-view


  • Review John Smith Biography (p92)
  • Students complete Vocabulary Practice (128) and Vocabulary Strategy worksheets (129)
  • Review Text Analysis: Narrator and Reading Strategy: Reading Older Texts (p93)
  • Read from “The General History of Virginia” (p94-99)
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-4 on page 100 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 5-8 on page 100 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (123) and Reading Check (130) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Reading Strategy (125) and Question Support (131) worksheets.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (117) to facilitate further discussion.

03/24/2015: Great Gatsby Test


The Great Gatsby

Choose one of the following topics and write a five-paragraph essay fully addressing the topic. Due at end of class.

1. Women in the novel. Has Fitzgerald been fair in his development of female characters?

Review actions, speeches and remarks made about them (use page numbers for your examples). Should the novel have featured at least one ‘sympathetic heroine’, or is there at least one who is?

2. Evaluate the structure of the novel. Could there have been more elaborate development

of some of the characters? Is Nick a reasonable narrator? What contrast is there to provide sharp focus on the more important elements of plot, setting and character? Use page numbers for your examples.

3. Expressionism in the novel. How are colors, names, and other symbolic ideas

presented? Do they wear thin or are they successful? Choose at least three items to write about, using page numbers for your examples.

Test Review



The Great Gatsby – chs. 8-9

Chapter Eight

That night, Nick finds himself unable to sleep, since the terrible events of the day have greatly unsettled him. Wracked by anxiety, he hurries to Gatsby’s mansion shortly before dawn. He advises Gatsby to leave Long Island until the scandal of Myrtle’s death has quieted down. Gatsby refuses, as he cannot bring himself to leave Daisy: he tells Nick that he spent the entire night in front of the Buchanans’ mansion, just to ensure that Daisy was safe. He tells Nick that Tom did not try to harm her, and that Daisy did not come out to meet him, though he was standing on her lawn in full moonlight.

Gatsby, in his misery, tells Nick the story of his first meeting with Daisy. He does so even though it patently gives the lie to his earlier account of his past. Gatsby and Daisy first met in Louisville in 1917; Gatsby was instantly smitten with her wealth, her beauty, and her youthful innocence. Realizing that Daisy would spurn him if she knew of his poverty, Gatsby determined to lie to her about his past and his circumstances. Before he left for the war, Daisy promised to wait for him; the two then slept together, as though to seal their pact. Of course, Daisy did not wait; she married Tom, who was her social equal and the choice of her parents.

Realizing that it has grown late, Nick says goodbye to Gatsby. As he is walking away, he turns back and shouts that Gatsby is “worth the whole damn bunch [of the Buchanans and their East Egg friends] put together.”

The scene shifts from West Egg to the valley of ashes, where George Wilson has sought refuge with Michaelis. It is from this latter that Nick later learns what happened in the aftermath of Myrtle’s death. George Wilson tells Michaelis that he confronted Myrtle with the evidence of her affair and told her that, though she could conceal her sin from her husband, she could not hide it from the eyes of God. As the sun rises over the valley of ashes, Wilson is suddenly transfixed by the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg; he mistakes them for the eyes of God. Wilson assumes that the driver of the fatal car was Myrtle’s lover, and decides to punish this man for his sins.

He seeks out Tom Buchanan, in the hope that Tom will know the driver’s identity. Tom tells him that Gatsby was the driver. Wilson drives to Gatsby’s mansion; there, he finds Gatsby floating in his pool, staring contemplatively at the sky. Wilson shoots Gatsby, and then turns the gun on himself.

It is Nick who finds Gatsby’s body. He reflects that Gatsby died utterly disillusioned, having lost, in rapid succession, his lover and his dreams.


Nick gives the novel’s final appraisal of Gatsby when he asserts that Gatsby is “worth the whole damn bunch of them.” Despite the ambivalence he feels toward Gatsby’s criminal past and nouveau riche affectations, Nick cannot help but admire him for his essential nobility. Though he disapproved of Gatsby “from beginning to end,” Nick is still able to recognize him as a visionary, a man capable of grand passion and great dreams. He represents an ideal that has grown exceedingly rare in the 1920s, which Nick (along with Fitzgerald) regards as an age of cynicism, decadence, and cruelty.

Nick, in his reflections on Gatsby’s life, suggests that Gatsby’s great mistake was in loving Daisy: he thus chose an inferior object upon which to focus his almost mystical capacity for dreaming. Just as the American Dream itself has degenerated into the crass pursuit of material wealth, Gatsby, too, strives only for wealth once he has fallen in love with Daisy, whose trivial, limited imagination can conceive of nothing greater. It is significant that Gatsby is not murdered for his criminal connections, but rather for his unswerving devotion to Daisy; it blinds him to all else ­ even to his own safety. As Nick writes, Gatsby thus “[pays] a high price for living too long with a single dream.”

Up to the moment of his death, Gatsby cannot accept that this dream is over: he continues to insist that Daisy may still come to him, though it is clear to everyone ­ including the reader ­ that she is bound indissolubly to Tom. Gatsby’s death thus seems almost inevitable, given that a dreamer cannot exist without his dreams; through Daisy’s betrayal, he effectively loses his reason for living.

Wilson seems to be Gatsby’s grim double in Chapter VIII, and represents the more menacing aspects of a capacity for visionary dreaming. Like Gatsby, he fundamentally alters the course of his life by attaching symbolic significance to something that is, in and of itself, meaningless; for Gatsby, it is Daisy and her green light, for Wilson, it is the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg. Both men are destroyed by their love for women who love the brutal Tom Buchanan; both are consumed with longing for something greater than themselves. While Gatsby is a “successful” American dreamer (at least insofar as he has realized his dreams of wealth), Wilson exemplifies the fate of the failed dreamer, whose poverty has deprived him of even his ability to hope.

Gatsby’s death takes place on the first day of autumn, when a chill has begun to creep into the air. His decision to use his pool is in defiance of the change of seasons, and represents yet another instance of Gatsby’s unwillingness to accept the passage of time. The summer is, for him, equivalent to his reunion with Daisy; the end of the summer heralds the end of their romance

Chapter Nine

Like insects, reporters and gossipmongers swarm around Gatsby’s mansion after his death. They immediately busy themselves with spreading grotesquely exaggerated stories about his murder, his life, and his relationships. Nick tries to give Gatsby a funeral as grand as his parties, but finds that Gatsby’s enormous circle of acquaintances has suddenly evaporated. Many ­ like Tom and Daisy Buchanan ­ have simply skipped town, while others ­ including Meyer Wolfsheim and Kilpspringer ­ flatly refuse to attend the funeral.

Nick tracks down Gatsby’s father, Henry C. Gatz, a solemn old man left helpless and distraught by the death of his son. Gatz shows Nick a book in which the young Gatsby kept a self-improvement schedule; nearly every minute of his day was meticulously planned. The only other attendee at Gatsby’s funeral is Owl Eyes, the melancholy drunk who was so astonished by Gatsby’s library.

Nick meets with Jordan Baker, who recalls their conversation about how bad drivers are only dangerous when two of them meet. She tells Nick that she and he are both “bad drivers,” and are therefore a treacherous combination. When Nick ends their affair, she suddenly claims to be engaged to another man.

Months later, Nick runs into Tom Buchanan on New York’s Fifth Avenue. Tom admits that it was he who sent Wilson to Gatsby’s; he shows no remorse, however, and says that Gatsby deserved to die. Nick reflects that Tom and Daisy are capable only of cruelty and destruction; they are kept safe from the consequences of their actions by their fortress of wealth and privilege.

Nick, repulsed by the shallow and brutal East, determines to return to the Midwest. He reflects that he, the Buchanans, Gatsby, and Jordan are all Westerners who came east; perhaps they all possess some deficiency which makes them unsuitable to Eastern life. After Gatsby’s death, the East is haunted, grotesque; the Midwest, by contrast, now seems as idyllic as a scene on a Christmas card.

Staring at the moon on his last night in West Egg, Nick imagines a primeval America ­ an America made for dreamers like Gatsby. The green light at the end of Daisy’s dock is like the green continent of America, beckoning its legions of dreamers. Gatsby, for all his greatness, failed to realize that the American Dream was already dead when he began to dream it: his goals, the pursuit of wealth and status, had long since become empty and meaningless. Nick muses that contemporary Americans are “boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past”; any attempt to progress, to move forward, is ultimately futile.


The final line of The Great Gatsby is one of the most famous in American literature, and serves as a sort of epitaph for both Gatsby and the novel as a whole.

So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.
Here, Nick reveals Gatsby’s lifelong quest to transcend his past as ultimately futile. In comparing this backward-driving force to the current of a river, Fitzgerald presents it as both inexorable and, in some sense, naturally determined: it is the inescapable lot of humanity to move backward. Therefore, any attempt at progress is only a conceit, the result of hubris and outsize ambition.

Nick, in reflecting on America as a whole, links its fate to Gatsby’s. America, according to Fitzgerald, was founded on the ideals of progress and equality. The America envisioned by its founders was a land made for men like Gatsby: it was intended as a place where visionary dreamers could thrive. Instead, people like Tom and Daisy Buchanan have recreated the grotesqueries and excesses of the European aristocracy in the New World. Gatsby, for all his wealth and greatness, could not become a part of their world; his noble attempt to engineer his own destiny was sabotaged by their cruelty and by the stunted quality of their imaginations. Fitzgerald’s America is emphatically not a place where anything is possible: just as America has failed to transcend its European origins, Gatsby, too, cannot overcome the circumstances of his upbringing.

Though Nick worships Gatsby’s courage and capacity for self-reinvention, he cannot approve of his dishonesty and his criminal dealings. Gatsby, both while he is alive and after his death, poses an insoluble challenge to Nick’s customary ways of thinking about the world. Nick firmly believes that the past determines who we are: he suggests that he, and all the novel’s characters, are fundamentally Westerners, and thus intrinsically unsuited to life in the East. The West, though it was once emblematic of the American desire for progress, is presented in the novel’s final pages as the seat of traditional morality ­ an idyllic heartland, in stark contrast to the greed and depravity of the East.

It is important to note that the Buchanans lived in East Egg, and Gatsby in West Egg; therefore, in gazing at the green light on Daisy’s dock, Gatsby was looking East. The green light, like the green land of America itself, was once a symbol of hope; now, the original ideals of the American dream have deteriorated into the crass pursuit of wealth. In committing his extraordinary capacity for dreaming to his love for Daisy, Gatsby, too, devoted himself to nothing more than material gain. In Fitzgerald’s grim version of the Roaring Twenties, Gatsby’s ruin both mirrors and prefigures the ruin of America itself.


The Great Gatsby

  • Quiz on Chapter 7.
  1. Who do we meet for the first time at the Buchanan’s house in Chapter 7?
  2. Who drives Gatsby’s car into town? 
  3. Who tells Tom that Daisy never loved him? 
  4. How does Tom say Gatsby got his money?
  5. Who is killed in Chapter 7?
  1. Chapter Seven summary: Now, when curiosity about Gatsby has reached a fever pitch, he ceases to throw his Saturday night parties. The only purpose of the parties was to solicit Daisy’s attention; now that they are reunited, the parties have lost their meaning. Nick, surprised that the revelry has stopped, goes over to make certain that Gatsby is all right. He learns that Gatsby has fired all of his former servants and replaced them with a number of disreputable characters who were formerly employed by Meyer Wolfsheim. Daisy has begun visiting him in the afternoons, and Gatsby wants to make certain that she will not be exposed to any of the lurid gossip about his life and his past. Tom, desperate to pick a fight with Gatsby, forces the entire party to drive into New York. Gatsby and Daisy drive in Tom’s car, while Nick, Jordan, and Tom drive in Gatsby’s. On the way, Tom furiously tells Nick that Gatsby is no Oxford man. They stop for gas at Wilson’s garage. Wilson tells them that he’s decided to move his wife out west, since he recently learned that she’s been having an affair; he does not yet, however, know who her lover is. Upon leaving the garage, they see Myrtle peering down at the car from her window. She stares at Jordan with an expression of jealous terror, since she has assumed that Jordan is Tom’s wife. Feeling that both his wife and mistress are slipping away from him, Tom grows panicked and impatient. To escape from the summer heat, the group takes a suite at the Plaza Hotel. There, Tom finally confronts Gatsby, mocking his use of the phrase “old sport.” Tom accuses Gatsby of never having been at Oxford; Gatsby replies that he did, in fact, study there ­ for five months after the end of the war. Tom regards Daisy’s affair with the lower-class Gatsby as one of the harbingers of the decline of civilization: soon, Tom hisses, there will even be intermarriage between the races. Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy doesn’t love him, and has never loved him; he informs him that he’s “not going to take care of Daisy anymore.” Tom calls Gatsby a “common swindler” and reveals that he has made his fortune in bootlegging. Daisy, in her shallowness and snobbery, sides with Tom, and refuses Gatsby when he pleads with her to say that she has never loved her husband. As the confrontation draws to a close, Nick realizes that today is his thirtieth birthday. Chapter 7 Analysis:Gatsby is profoundly changed by his reunion with Daisy: he ceases to throw his lavish parties and, for the first time, shows concern for his public reputation. In the past, Gatsby has simply ignored the vicious rumors circulating about him; for Daisy’s sake, however, he must now exercise some discretion. Daisy, by contrast, is extremely indiscreet with regard to her romance with Gatsby. Inviting Gatsby to lunch with her husband would be a bold, foolish move under any circumstances; when one takes Tom’s snobbery and intense suspiciousness into account, Daisy’s decision seems to border on madness. Tom is profoundly insecure, obsessed with both his own inevitable downfall and the downfall of civilization itself. It is important to recognize that, for Tom, they are the same thing: he believes that he, as a wealthy white male aristocrat, is Western civilization’s greatest achievement. This odious mindset is borne out by his choice of reading material, which views the end of the world and interracial marriage as being equally catastrophic. The distinction between “old” and “new” money is crucial here: while Gatsby earned his fortune, Daisy is an aristocrat, a woman for whom wealth and privilege come effortlessly. As Gatsby himself remarks, even her voice is “full of money.” This is what he loves in Daisy’s voice, and in Daisy herself: for Gatsby, Daisy represents the wealth and elegance for which he has yearned all his life. Gatsby thus loses Daisy for the same reason that he adores her: her patrician arrogance. The introduction of Daisy’s daughter provides incontestable proof of Gatsby’s inability to annul the passage of time. He does not believe in the child’s existence until actually confronted with her; even then, he regards her with shock and bewilderment. Daisy, for her part, seems scarcely to regard the girl as real: she coos over her as though she were a doll, and seems to leave her almost entirely in the care of a nanny. The selfish and immature Daisy is essentially a child herself, and is in no position to be a mother. Daisy’s carelessness and stupidity eventually lead to the death of Myrtle Wilson, and Gatsby is forced to leave the scene of the accident and to hide the fatal car simply to protect Daisy’s fragile nerves. His decision to take responsibility for Myrtle’s death reveals that his love for Daisy is unassailable; her cruelty has changed and will change nothing. Gatsby, despite his criminal activities, remains essentially noble: he
  2. Daisy remains characteristically passive throughout Chapter VII; she is only a spectator to the argument between Gatsby and Tom. Her weakness is particularly important here: Tom and Gatsby fight over who can possess Daisy and provide for her. Gatsby, tellingly, does not say that Daisy is leaving Tom, but that Tom is “not going to take care of her anymore”; both men regard her as being incapable of independent action.
  3. The confrontation between Gatsby and Tom serves to reveal the major flaws and motivations of both characters. For Tom, the affair between Gatsby and Daisy is evidence of the decline of civilization; he seems less disturbed by his wife’s infidelity than by the fact that she is involved with a man of an inferior social class. Tom’s gross misogyny and hypocrisy assert themselves here: he obviously does not regard his affair with the lower-class Myrtle Wilson in the same apocalyptic light. As Nick remarks, Tom moves “from libertine to prig” when it suits his needs. Tom uses the fact of Gatsby’s criminal activity to humiliate him before Daisy. Tom, for all his crudeness, possesses a subtle knowledge of his wife: he realizes that Daisy’s innate snobbery is ultimately identical with his own. She would never desert her aristocratic husband for “a common bootlegger” ­ regardless of the love she felt for the bootlegger in question. Daisy refuses to submit to Gatsby’s pleas, and will not say that she has never loved Tom. Gatsby is ultimately unable to recapture his idyllic past; the past, the future, and Daisy herself ultimately belong to Tom.
  4. The reunion of Gatsby and Daisy is the novel’s pivotal event; it sets all the subsequent events into inevitable motion. In Chapter VII, the story of their romance reaches its climax and  its tragic conclusion.
  5. In the valley of ashes, Nick, Jordan and Tom find that someone has been struck and killed by an automobile. The young Greek, Michaelis, who runs the coffee house next to Wilson’s garage, tells them that the victim was Myrtle Wilson. She ran out into the road during a fight with her husband; there, she was struck by an opulent yellow car. Nick realizes that the fatal car must have been Gatsby’s Rolls-Royce. Tom presumes that Gatsby was the driver.
  6. On the hottest day of the summer, Daisy invites Gatsby, Nick and Jordan to lunch. Daisy has the nanny exhibit her infant daughter, who is dressed in white, to the assembled guests. Gatsby seems almost bewildered by the child ­ he has been, until this moment, entirely unable to conceive of Daisy as a mother. Tom is full of his usual bluster, remarking that he read that the sun is growing hotter; soon, the earth will fall into it, and that will be the end of the world. During the luncheon, Tom realizes that Gatsby and his wife are romantically involved. Gatsby stares at Daisy with undisguised passion, and Daisy recklessly remarks, within earshot of Tom, that she loves Gatsby. Tom, unsettled, goes inside to get a drink, and in his absence Nick remarks that Daisy has an indiscreet voice. When Nick goes on to say that Daisy’s voice also has an indescribably seductive quality, Gatsby blurts that her voice is “full of money.”


ACT Test

03/ 16/2015

The Great Gatsby

Quiz over chapter 4 (concerns Jordan’s story about Daisy and Gatsby as she relates it to Nick).

  1. Where did Daisy grow up?
  2. What did Daisy do on her wedding day that almost stopped the wedding?
  3. What did Tom do immediately after returning from their honeymoon?
  4. Who was the Army officer that Jordan saw in Daisy’s car the year before she got married?
  5. Why did Gatsby buy the house on West Egg?

Read chapters 5 and 6 aloud.

Chapter Five:

One night, Gatsby waylays Nick and nervously asks him if he would like to take a swim in his pool; when Nick demurs, he offers him a trip to Coney Island. Nick, initially baffled by Gatsby’s solicitousness, realizes that he is anxiously waiting for Nick to arrange his meeting with Daisy. Nick agrees to do so. Gatsby, almost wild with joy, responds by offering him a job, a “confidential sort of thing,” and assures Nick that he will not have to work with Meyer Wolfsheim. Nick is somewhat insulted that Gatsby wishes to reimburse him for his help, and so declines Gatsby’s offer.

It rains on the day that Gatsby and Daisy are to meet, and Gatsby becomes extremely apprehensive. The meeting takes place at Nick’s house and, initially, their conversation is stilted and awkward. They are all inexplicably embarrassed; when Gatsby clumsily knocks over a clock, Nick tells him that he’s behaving like a little boy. Nick leaves the couple alone for a few minutes; when he returns, they seem luminously happy, as though they have just concluded an embrace. There are tears of happiness on Daisy’s cheeks.

They make their way over to Gatsby’s mansion, of which Gatsby proceeds to give them a carefully rehearsed tour. Gatsby shows Daisy newspaper clippings detailing his exploits. She is overwhelmed by them, and by the opulence of his possessions; when he shows her his vast collection of imported shirts, she begins to weep tears of joy. Nick wonders whether Gatsby is disappointed with Daisy; it seems that he has made of her a goddess, and ­ though Daisy herself is alluring ­ she cannot possibly live up to so grandiose an ideal.

Gatsby has Ewing Klipspringer, a mysterious man who seems to live at his mansion, play “Ain’t We Got Fun” (a popular song of the time) for himself and Daisy:

In the morning, in the evening
Ain’t we got fun!
Got no money, but oh, honey
Ain’t we got fun!

As Klipspringer plays, Gatsby and Daisy draw closer and closer together; Nick, realizing that his presence has become superfluous, quietly leaves.


The exchange between Nick and Gatsby that opens this chapter highlights the uncertainty at the heart of their relationship: is Gatsby’s friendship with Nick merely expedient ­ that is, is he merely using him to draw closer to Daisy ­ or is he genuinely fond of him?

The question cannot be absolutely decided: while it becomes clear that Gatsby has great affection for Nick, it is also true that he uses his money and power as leverage in all of his personal relationships. Gatsby, in his extreme insecurity about class, cannot believe that anyone would befriend him if he did not possess a mansion and several million dollars a year. Fitzgerald seems to bitterly affirm this insecurity, given the fact that Gatsby was abandoned by Daisy because of his poverty, and remains ostracized by the East Eggers even after his success. In the world of the novel, only Nick does not make friendships based upon class.

The gross materialism of the East and West Egg milieus explains the obsessive care that Gatsby takes in his reunion with Daisy. The afternoon is give over to an ostentatious display of wealth: he shoes Daisy his extensive collection of British antiques and takes her on a tour of his wardrobe; Gatsby himself is dressed in gold and silver. His Gothic mansion is described as looking like the citadel of a feudal lord. Nearly everything in the house is imported from England (the scene in which Gatsby shows Daisy his piles of English shirts is one of the most famous scenes in American literature). Fitzgerald implies that Gatsby is attempting to live the life of a European aristocrat in the New World of America. This, Fitzgerald suggests, is a misguided anachronism: America committed itself to progress and equality in abandoning the old aristocracy. To go back to such rigidly defined class distinctions would be retrograde and barbaric ­ as is implied by the fact that the major proponent of such ideas is Tom Buchanan, who is clearly a cretin and a brute.

This chapter presents Gatsby as a man who cannot help but live in the past: he longs to stop time, as though he and Daisy had never been separated ­ as though she had never left him to marry Tom. During their meeting Nick remarks that he is acting like “a little boy”: in Daisy’s presence, Gatsby loses his usual debonair manner and behaves like any awkward young man in love. Gatsby himself is regressing, moving back in time, as though he were still a shy young soldier in love with a privileged debutante.

Nick describes the restless Gatsby as “running down like an over-wound clock.” It is significant that Gatsby, in his nervousness about whether Daisy’s feelings toward him have changed, knocks over Nick’s clock: this signifies both Gatsby’s consuming desire to stop time and his inability to do so.

Daisy, too, ceases to play the part of a world-weary sophisticate upon her reunion with Gatsby. She weeps when he shows her his collection of sumptuous English shirts, and seems genuinely overjoyed at his success. In short, Gatsby transforms her; she becomes almost human. Daisy is more sympathetic here than she is at any other point in the novel.

The song “Ain’t We Got Fun” is significant for a number of reasons. The opening lyrics (“In the morning/ In the evening/ Ain’t we got fun”) imply a carefree spontaneity that stands in stark contrast to the tightly-controlled quality of the lovers’ reunion. This contrast is further sharpened by the words of the next verse, which run: “Got no money/ But oh, honey/ Ain’t we got fun!” It is bitterly ironic that Gatsby and Daisy should reunite to the strains of this song, given the fact that she first rejected him for his poverty.

Chapter Six:

A reporter, inspired by the feverish gossip about Gatsby then circulating in New York, comes to West Egg in the hopes of obtaining the true story of his past from him. Though Gatsby himself turns the man away, Nick interrupts the narrative to relate Gatsby’s past ­ the truth of which he only learned much later ­ to the reader.

His real name is James Gatz, and he was born to an impoverished farmer in North Dakota ­ rather than into wealth in San Francisco, as he claimed. He had his named legally changed to Jay Gatsby at the age of seventeen. Though he did attend St Olaf’s ­ a small college in Minnesota ­ he dropped out after two weeks, as he could not bear working as a janitor in order to pay his tuition. Gatsby’s dreams of self-improvement are only intensified by his relationship with Dan Cody, a man whom he met while working as a fisherman on Lake Superior. Cody was then fifty, a self-made millionaire who had made his fortune during the Yukon gold rush. Cody took Gatsby in and made the young man his personal assistant. On their subsequent voyages to the West Indies and the Barbary Coast, Gatsby became even more passionately covetous of wealth and privilege. When Cody died, Gatsby inherited $25,000; he was unable to claim it, however, due to the malicious intervention of Cody’s mistress, Ella Kaye. Afterward, Gatsby vowed to become a success in his own right.

Several weeks pass without Nick’s seeing Gatsby. Upon visiting Gatsby at his mansion, Nick is shocked to find Tom Buchanan there. Tom has unexpectedly stopped for a drink at Gatsby’s after an afternoon of horseback riding; he is accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Sloane, an insufferable East Egg couple who exemplify everything that is repellent about the “old rich.” Gatsby invites the group to supper, but Mrs. Sloane hastily refuses; perhaps ashamed at her own rudeness, she then half-heartedly offers Gatsby and Nick an invitation to dine at her home. Nick, recognizing the insincerity of her offer, declines; Gatsby accepts, though it is unclear whether his gesture is truly oblivious or defiant.

Tom pointedly complains about the crazy people that Daisy meets, presumably referring to Gatsby. Throughout the awkward afternoon, he is contemptuous of Gatsby ­ particularly of his acceptance of Mrs. Sloane’s disingenuous invitation.

The following Saturday, Tom and Daisy attend one of Gatsby’s parties. Tom, predictably, is unpleasant and rude throughout the evening. After the Buchanans leave, Gatsby is crestfallen at the thought that Daisy did not have a good time; he does not yet know that Tom badly upset her by telling her that Gatsby made his fortune in bootlegging.

Nick realizes that Gatsby wants Daisy to tell Tom that she has never loved him. Nick gently informs Gatsby that he can’t ask too much of Daisy, and says, “You can’t repeat the past.” Gatsby spiritedly replies: “Of course you can!”


Nick begins the story of Gatsby’s past by saying that Gatsby “sprang from his Platonic conception of himself.” In order to understand this statement, the reader must remember that the “Platonic conception” of a person or thing refers to that thing’s ideal form. That is, the Platonic form of an object is the perfect form of that object. Therefore, Nick is suggesting that Gatsby has modeled himself on an idealized version of “Jay Gatsby”: he is striving to be the man he envisions in his fondest dreams of himself. Gatsby is thus the novel’s representative of the American Dream, and the story of his youth borrows on one of that dream’s oldest myths: that of the self-made man. In changing his name from James Gatz to Jay Gatsby, he attempts to remake himself on his own terms; Gatsby wishes to be reborn as the aristocrat he feels himself to be.

It is significant that Gatsby leaves college because he finds his work as a janitor degrading. This seems a perverse decision, given the fact that a university education would dramatically improve his social standing. His decision to leave reveals Gatsby’s extreme sensitivity to class, and to the fact of his own poverty; from his childhood onward, he longs for wealth and ­ perhaps more importantly ­ for the sophistication and elegance which he imagines that wealth will lend him. His work as a janitor is a gross humiliation because it is at odds with his ideal of himself; to protect that ideal, he is willing to damage his actual circumstances.

Fitzgerald uses the character of Dan Cody to subtly suggest that the America of the 1920s is no longer a place where self-made men can thrive. Cody, like Gatsby, transcended early hardship to become a millionaire; also like Gatsby, he is remarkably generous to his friends and subordinates. Cody takes to drinking because, despite his wealth, he remains unable to carve out a place for himself in the world of 1920s America. It is important to note that Cody’s death is brought about, at least in part, through the treachery of the woman he loves; this foreshadows the circumstances of Gatsby’s death in Chapter VIII.

The painfully awkward luncheon party at Gatsby’s mansion underlines the hostility of the American 1920s toward the figure of the self-made man. Both the Sloanes and Tom Buchanan treat Gatsby with contempt and condescension, because he is not of the long-standing American upper class. Though Gatsby is fabulously wealthy ­ perhaps wealthier than Tom himself ­he is still regarded as socially inferior. For Fitzgerald, nothing could be more inimical to the original ideals of America. The first Americans fought to escape the tyrannies of the European nobility; Tom Buchanan longs to reproduce them.

This chapter makes it clear that Daisy, too, is a part of the same narrow-minded aristocracy that produced her husband. For Gatsby, she became the symbol of everything that he wanted to possess: she is the epitome of wealth and sophistication. Though Gatsby loves this quality in Daisy, it is precisely because she is an aristocrat that she cannot possibly fulfill his dreams: she would never sacrifice her own class status in order to be with him. Her love for him pales in comparison to her love of privilege.


Vocabulary Quiz:

advantage, affect, approach, argument, article, attitude, audience, bias, cause, citation, combine, communicate


The Great Gatsby

Chapters 3 & 4

Ch. 3


  • Nick meets Gatsby at one of his parties.
  • Why doesn’t Gatsby introduce himself to Nick when they first sit down together? (wants to see if they will say something about him)
  • Nick begins spending time with Jordan.
  • What does he have to do before they can become more involved?
  • (break up with girlfriend back home)

Literary Focus

  • Does Nick’s first meeting with Gatsby make him more or less mysterious?
  • Gatsby’s smile/artificiality (formal speech)
  • Rumors about Gatsby.
  • Jordan is careless in both her driving and speech.
  • This prepares us for later events.

Ch. 4


  • Nick has lunch with Gatsby in New York.
  • Gatsby gives his bio? Is it all true? (doubtful)
  • Nick meets Meyer Wolfsheim.
  • What does this tell us about Gatsby? (shady associates)
  • Revelations about Gatsby and Daisy (used to be together)
  • Jordan asks Nick to invite Gatsby and Daisy for tea.
  • Why doesn’t Gatsby ask Nick himself? (insecure? Aloof?)

Literary Focus

  • Why the list of names of Gatsby’s summer visitors?
  • Why do so many of them have tragic ends?
  • Why do you think Gatsby carries “evidence” of his past?
  • What is the “San Francisco/Midwest” thing all about?
  • How does Jordan’s telling of the Gatsby/Daisy romance make Gatsby more real for Nick?

Read Chapters 5 and 6


The Great Gatsby


1.  What is the narrator’s name?

2. Who is Tom’s wife?

3.  Who is Daisy’s best friend?

4.  Who is Nick’s neighbor?

5.  Who owns the garage?

Chapters 1-2

Ch. 1:

  • Synopsis: Meet main characters
  • Tom
  • Daisy
  • Nick
  • Jordan
  • Literary Focus:
  • Gatsby is a presence rather than a real person
  • What is the “secret society” Tom & Daisy belong to? (cynicism, sarcasm)
  • Daisy’s “thrilling” voice
  • What does Fitzgerald say about the voice? (full of promise to men)
  • What does “full of promise” mean?
  • “single green light”
  • We will see it again.
  • Think about what it means to Gatsby.

Ch. 2:

  • Synopsis: Meet Myrtle
  • Horrible party with Myrtle’s sister & the McKees
  • Literary Focus:
  • “valley of ashes”
  • symbolic of the wasteland America has become
  • What wasteland? (vapidness of chasing money)
  • “eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg”
  • What do they symbolize? (God?)
  • Tom’s attack on Myrtle represents what? (the views he and Daisy have for the rest of the world: everyone is beneath them)

Do vocabulary: (chapters 1-2) banns, deft, extemporize, fractious, rotogravure,

supercilious, contiguous, ectoplasm, pastoral, strident

(chapters 3-4) cataract, echolalia, staid, vacuous, denizen, jauntily,

olfactory, somnambulatory

03/09 – 10/2015


  • Review Questions from pages 239-258
  • Discuss ending of Novel
  • Review for Multiple Choice Test
  • Assign Characterization Essay:Assignment: Now that you have information on all the major characters in “As I Lay Dying”, you should be able to relate to at least one of them. Write an essay explaining which member of the Bundren family you most relate to. What personality traits do you share with him or her? How does his or her actions remind you of yourself? Use quotes from the novel either by the character or about the character as evidence. (You should be able to find much of this information on your Characterization Chart.) At least one page in length.
  • Take test Wednesday
  • As I Lay Dying” Post-Reading EssayIn William Faulkner’s Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech (1950), he outlines the goals American writers should strive for and the things they should concentrate on. Now that you have read a Faulkner novel; it’s time to decide if he held himself to his own standards. Is “As I Lay Dying” a novel of “love and honor and pity and pride and compassion and sacrifice”? Does Faulkner “help man endure by lifting his heart”? Can “AILD” be “one of the props, the pillars to help him (mankind) endure and prevail”? Answer these questions in an thorough critical essay. Be sure to use examples and page numbers to provide support for your claims. It should take you at least two pages to do this well.

03/05 – 06/2015: No School; Inclement Weather



1.  Why doesn’t Jewell have his horse?

2.  Who carries the coffin out of the burning barn?

3.  Who started the barn fire?

4. Where does Anse get a shovel to dig Addie’s grave?

5. What happens to Darl?

As I Lay Dying 

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions
  • Learning Objectives

  • Explore the use of symbolism in relation to narrative voice
  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Guiding Questions
  • How is the river crossing significant to each of the characters involved?
    • How does the description of the river and the crossing relate to the method of narration?
  • Define Symbolism
  • Hand out questions
  • Divide students into four groups and assign questions
  • Groups report back to entire class
  • After, students do vocabulary individually

Name__________________________________________________ Date______03/04/2015___ Class:__1st_Period__

As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Peabody (Pg. 239)

1. What is Peabody’s opinion of the decision to send Darl to the mental hospital?

MacGowan (Pg 241)

1. If you were Dewey Dell, who would you feel anger towards — Mosely or MacGowan? Why?

Vardaman (Pg 249)

1. What is the function of the italicized portions of this section?

Darl (Pg 253)

1. What is unusual about this passage, as far as point of view is concerned?

2. What is the only word Darl says in this passage? What is the significance of this?

Dewey Dell (Pg 255)

1. What methods does Anse use to worm the ten dollars away from Dewey Dell?

Cash (Pg 258)

1. Where are the Bundrens getting their financial support in Jefferson?

2. When Anse emerges with his graphophone and his new life, what paradox is used to describe the way he looks?


As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Vardaman (Pg 210)

1. Who is Vardaman going to search for that night?

Darl (Pg 212)

1. What effect has the cement had on Cash’s leg?

2. Do you think Jewel knows that Anse is not his father?

Vardaman (Pg 214)

1. Through the holes in the coffin, Darl and Vardaman hear some noises; Darl says that the noises are Addie “calling on (God) to help her.” What are these noises?

2. What is the function of the italicized portions of this section?

3. Where do the vultures actually go?

Darl (Pg 218)


1. frieze

2. opaline

1. What is Jewel’s first concern in the barn? How does Darl divert him?

2. How is Addie’s prophecy shown to be true? What supernatural imagery goes along with this episode?

Vardaman (Pg 223)

1. How does Anse demonstrate his total lack of respect for his family?

2. What do you think that Vardaman saw, that he is not supposed to reveal?

Darl (Pg 226)


1. ejaculant

2. patent

1. Locate an instance of personification in this chapter.

Cash (Pg 232)

1. Why do the Bundrens send Darl to Jackson?

2. What is the significance of this sentence?

“It’s better to build a tight chicken coop than a shoddy courthouse.”

3. What is Cash’s final statement on Darl’s sanity?


As I Lay Dying 

Common Core Focus: RL3; RL5

Learning Objectives

After completing the activity in this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Describe in detail Addie Bundren’s character both from her own as well as other characters’ perspectives
  • Examine the Bundren family through the subjective evidence provided by multiple characters

Guiding Questions

  • How does Faulkner’s form for the novel—a series of competing voices and perspectives presented as a multiple-voice narrative—work for or against the novel’s title?
  • What impact does the sudden voice of a silenced (and dead) character have on the narrative? How does Addie’s voice change the reader’s perception of the Bundren family?


Panel Discussions focus on following topics/questions:

  • Before specifically discussing Addie’s chapter, have students consider:
  • Who is Addie Bundren to each of the characters who speak of her?
  • What are the relationships like between Addie and her children? Addie and her husband?
  • Read aloud the 10th Darl section, which contains a revealing passage:

It [the New Hope sign] wheels up like a motionless hand lifted above the profound desolation of the ocean; beyond it the red road lies like a spoke of which Addie Bundren is the rim. It wheels past, empty, unscarred, the white signboard turns away its fading and tranquil assertion. (p. 108, Vintage edition, 1990)

  • Have students discuss this image—the road “like a spoke of which Addie Bundren is the rim”—in depth.
  • Draw the shape of a wheel on the blackboard, labeling the rim as Addie.
    • Ask students to consider how this reflects the structure of the story. Students might discuss:
  • The symbol of the wheel—how can this be interpreted in relation to family? To narrative form? If Addie is the rim, what or who might the spokes represent?
  • Why is the “New Hope” sign a “fading and tranquil assertion”? Is there a role for “new hope” in this novel? [Students will return to this question in Lesson 5: Concluding the Novel.]

Addie’s voice comes to the reader only after her rotting body was pulled from its “baptism” in the river after the disastrous crossing. Questions that might be valuable in discussing her chapter:

  • Where is her voice coming from, since she is at this point quite dead?
  • What is the placement in the novel of Addie’s chapter, and what is the significance of that placement? Consider who frames Addie’s chapter: Cora before and Whitfield after.
  • How do our impressions of Addie change once we encounter her voice?
  • How does Addie’s perspective cloud or illuminate the themes and issues that we have encountered so far through the other characters’ perspective?
  • What do we learn about her role in the family, and how does that compare to how her children and husband view her? She comes across as bitter, but are the motives of her family any more pure?

Addie displays bitterness about the very fact of existence and a preoccupation about death: “I could just remember how my father used to say that the reason for living was to get ready to stay dead a long time.”

  • She expresses distaste for her students and difficulty relating to her children.
  • She implies that she married Anse for his property and that “living is terrible” after she has Cash, who “violated” her aloneness.
  • Darl’s birth makes her want to kill Anse; she refers to him as “dead,” though he doesn’t know it.
  • She is skeptical about love, which she refers to as a “word . . . like all the others: just a shape to fill a lack.”
  • In fact, she questions the authority of language and the possibility for meaning: “That was when I learned that words are no good; that words don’t ever fit even what they are trying to say at.”

Further questions to consider:

  • What might be the reasons that Faulkner reveals Addie’s interior life only once?
  • Do the characters’ assessments of Addie match with the portrait she paints of herself? Students can refer to their charts (started in Lesson 2) in order to detail Addie’s relationships with her family and community.
  • Why does Addie express uncertainty for meaning in language? How might that theme relate to the presence of her own voice in the narrative? What of the voice of the author?

Name____________________________________ Date_02/17/2015 Class______

As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Armstid (Pg 184)

1. What does Anse trade to get a team of mules from Snopes? What effect does this have on Jewel? Or Armstid?

Vardaman (Pg 194)

1. What are the creatures in “tall black circles”?

2. How does Vardaman describe Cash’s sensations of pain?

Moseley (Pg 198)


1. liefer

2. toilet water

1. What is the difference between Moseley’s and Dewey Dell’s sides of this discussion?

2. How is the Bundren family perceived by the citizens of Mottson?

Darl (Pg 206)

1. As they mix the cement to set Cash’s leg, what image foreshadows the resulting damage to his leg?

2. What does Darl mean when he says, “It would be nice if you could just ravel out into time”?

02/13/2015: No School; Professional Development



1. What was Jewel doing when he was sneaking out at night?

2. Why was Anse mad about Jewel buying the horse?

3. Who drives the wagon across the bridge?

4. Who jumps out of the wagon as it starts to turn over?

5. What does Cora Tull say the log was?

As I Lay Dying (Day 8)

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions
  • Learning Objectives
  • Explore the use of symbolism in relation to narrative voice
  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Guiding Questions
  • How is the river crossing significant to each of the characters involved?
  • How does the description of the river and the crossing relate to the method of narration
  • Define Symbolism
  • Hand out questions
  • Divide students into four groups and assign questions
  • Groups report back to entire class
  • After, students do vocabulary individually

Name____________________________________ Date_10/03/2014______________ Class______ As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper. Darl (Pg 156) Vocabulary 1. infinitesimal 2. ludicrous 3. scuttles 4. stagnation 1. When Anse, Jewel, Darl, Vernon, and Cash are looking for Cash’s tools, Anse says, “Was there ere a such misfortune man.” To whom is he referring? 2. Describe Anse’s actions during the hunt for Cash’s tools. 3. Explain the significance of the last sentence of the passage. Cash (Pg 165) 1. Explain the significance of the last sentence in the passage. Cora (Pg 166) Vocabulary 1. expiation 1. Addie tells Cora that her “daily life is an acknowledgement and expiation of (her) sin.” What does she mean? What does Cora think she means? 2. What seems to be Addie’s opinion of grace, according to her conversation with Cora? 3. Where does it seem that Addie has placed her ultimate faith. Addie (Pg 169) 1. Addie’s father told her that “the reason for living was to get ready to stay dead a long time.” How does this help shape Addie as a teacher and as a wife? 2. Describe the nature of Anse’s courtship of Addie. 3. What is Addie’s opinion of the relationship between words and the experiences or images that they signify? 4. What seems to be Addie’s most prized emotional possession? 5. What causes Addie to have her affair with Whitfield? 6. What is Addie’s response to Cora? 7. How does Addie rationalize her life after her affair with Witfield? 8. What does Addie mean by “cleaning up the house afterward”? Whitfield (Pg 177) Vocabulary 1. surmount 2. transgression 1. When Whitfield hears that Addie is dying, what is his resolution? 2. What is Whitfield’s stated motivation for revealing his sin? Is this the same as his actual motivation? 3. What does Whitfield see as a sign of God’s forgiveness for his adultery? 4. Why does Whitfield not reveal his sin to Anse? Darl (Pg 180) 1. Anse has been adamant that his children not “flout” the memory of Addie by doing such things as riding a horse, or bringing their tools in the wagon. How does Anse flout Addie’s memory in this section? 2. The function of the italicized text in this section seems to be to show us Darl’s thoughts about Jewel while the rest of the events are happening. What is the purpose of this? 3. In the last paragraph, what image is repeated to describe Jewel’s horse?


As I Lay Dying (Day 7)

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions

•                     Learning Objectives

  • Explore the use of symbolism in relation to narrative voice
  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Guiding Questions
  • How is the river crossing significant to each of the characters involved?
  • How does the description of the river and the crossing relate to the method of narration
  • Define Symbolism
  • Hand out questions
  • Divide students into four groups and assign questions
  • Groups report back to entire class
  • After, students do vocabulary individually

As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Darl (Pg 128)


1. gaunt

2. monotonous

1. When Jewel is sneaking out late at night and sleeping during he days, Addie either does his chores of gets one of the other children to do them, and hids that from Anse. Why is this ironic?

2. What do Cash and Darl think that Jewel is doing out late at night? Are they right?

Tull (Pg 137)

1. Vardaman gives Vernon the confidence to go back over the bridge to his mule. What is the significance of this passage?

Darl (Pg 141)


1. flotsam

2. irrevocable

3. plaintive

4. stanchion

1. What images are used to foreshadow the wagon’s destruction?

2. Compare and contrast the final two images of the passage: Jewel beating his horse, and the final appearance of the mules out of the water.

Vardaman (Pg 150)

1. What is unusual about the syntax of this passage? What is the purpose?

2. What is the function of the italicized portion of this passage?

Tull (Pg 152)


1. sacrilege

1. How does Cora interpret the log’s destruction of the wagon? What is Vernon’s response to Cora?

2. In her conversations with Vernon, when does Cora seem to learn most heavily on religion?


As I Lay Dying (Day 5)

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions

•                     Learning Objectives

  • Explore the use of symbolism in relation to narrative voice
  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Guiding Questions
  • How is the river crossing significant to each of the characters involved?
  • How does the description of the river and the crossing relate to the method of narration?
  • Define Symbolism
  • Discuss Direct and Indirect Characterization
  • Hand out “The Many Voices of As I Lay Dying” worksheet (due at end of novel)
  • Assign questions and vocabulary: (see attached)
  • Read aloud through page 123 (end of Tull).

Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet
of paper.
Darl (Pg 103)
1. cattymount
2. surreptitious
1. When Darl looks at Dewey Dell, who does he see in
her eyes? What is the significance of this?
Anse (Pg 105)
1. Why does Jewel not leave with the rest of the famil
y? What happens in this passage?
Darl (Pg 107)
1. capitulation
2. scoriation
3. soporific
4. uninferant
1. Describe and explain the significance of the New Hope
church sign.
Anse ( Pg 110)
1. What is ironic about Anse’s monologue about society?
2. What is Anse’s source of comfort as he tries to get
to Jefferson?
Samson (Pg 112)
1. What observation does Samson make about Anse? How ac
curate is he?
2. What does Samson say is a key difference between me
n women?
Dewey Dell (Pg 120)
1. What sentence perhaps best sums up Dewey Dell’s menta
l and emotional state?
2. Explain the significance of the paragraph beginning “The
land runs out of Darl’s eyes.”
3. What is the function of the syntax in the last par
agraph, where Dewey Dell mentions belief in God?
Tull (Pg 123)
1. According to Vernon, what is the most unnerving part of
Darl’s personality?
2. Do you think it is Anse’s promise to Addie that makes hi
m go to Jefferson despite the flood? Why or
why not?
3. What details about Jewel show his inner ambivalence and r

                                                    As I Lay Dying     Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Darl (Pg 75)


  1. bevel
  2. burlesque
  3. caricaturist
  4. fluctuant
  5. impalpable
  6. reverberant
  7. silhouette
  1. Contrast Cash’s and Anse’s response to the rain.
  2. Once the coffin is finished, how do the men treat it differently? What is the significance?
  3. How does Darl explain Jewel’s discontent?
  4. What does Darl mean by the use of “is” and “was” at the end of the passage?

Cash (Pg 82)

  1. Cash’s longest passage comes in the form of a logical argument. What does this tell us about him?

Vardaman (pg 84)

  1. What does this very short passage express?

Tull (Pg 85)


  1. Commence
  1. What is ironic about Addie’s funeral attire?
  2. When Whitfield enters, does he focus matters on God or on himself? How do you know?
  3. What is the function of the italicized passage on pg 90-91? 92?
  4. Where has Vardaman been during the service?

Darl (Pg 94)


  1. implacable
  2. portentous
  3. retrograde
  1. Darl says, “I cannot love my mother because I have no mother. Jewel’s mother is a horse.” Explain the significance of this.

Cash (Pg 96)


  1. What is the argument here about?

Darl (Pg 97)


  1. emaciation
  1. Explain the significance of Jewel’s physical appearance.

Vardaman (Pg 100)

  1. What does Vardaman want that is town?
  2. Explain the odd conversation between Darl and Vardaman as they are getting ready to go in the wagon.


As I Lay Dying (Day 5)

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions
  • Learning Objectives

  • Explore the use of symbolism in relation to narrative voice
  • Understand and explore the use of multiple voices in narration
  • Guiding Questions
  • How is the river crossing significant to each of the characters involved?
    • How does the description of the river and the crossing relate to the method of narration?
  • Define Symbolism
  • Discuss Direct and Indirect Characterization
  • Hand out “The Many Voices of As I Lay Dying” worksheet (due at end of novel)

Read aloud through page 74(end of Tull).

Assign questions and vocabulary: (see attached)

Name____________________________________ Date_______________ Class______

As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions

Answer the following questions in complete sentence form on a separate sheet of paper

Darl (Pg 47)


1. approbation

2. censure

3. engendered

4. juxtaposition

5. keen

6. penurious

7. semblance

8. travail

9. ubiquity

1. Describe Cash’s last interaction with his mother.

2. What is the function of the italicized text in this passage?

3. Contrast Anse’s reaction to his wife’s death to the way his children respond.

Vardaman (Pg 53)


1. fetlock

1. Who does Vardaman think is responsible for his mother’s death?

2. Explain what Vardaman means when he says he is “vomiting the crying.”

3. What revenge does Vardaman take on Peabody?

Dewey Dell (Pg 58)


1. stertorous

1. Explain Dewey Dell’s view of pregnancy.

2. Is Dewey Dell self-absorbed? How can you tell?

3. When Dewey Dell finds Vardaman hiding in the barn, how does she interact with him?

Vardaman (pg. 65)

1. Why does the nailing of the coffin represent such a crisis for Vardaman?

Tull (Pg. 68)

1. Compare and contrast Vernon and Cora’s views of appropriate ways to help others in need.

2. Verdaman seems to be confusing his mother with the fish that he caught. How do Cora and Vernon interpret this mental reaction to Addie’s death?

3. How does Vardaman try to “save” his mother?

4. How does the end of this section summarize Vernon’s feelins about Cora’s judgments?


As I Lay Dying (Day 4)

  • Review Previous Day’s Questions
  • Guiding Questions
  • What does a character’s voice reveal about themselves?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of learning about something or someone through multiple perspectives?
  • Define Characterization
  • Discuss Direct and Indirect Characterization
  • Hand out “The Many Voices of As I Lay Dying” worksheet (due at end of novel)

Read aloud through page 47 (end of Peabody).

Assign questions and vocabulary: (see attached)

Name____________________________________ Date_______________ Class______
As I Lay Dying Chapter Questions
Answer the following questions in complete sentence form on a separate sheet of paper.
Tull (Pg 29)
1. What phrase does Anse repeat in this (and subsequent) passage? Why is it an example
of irony?
2. How does Tull feel about helping Anse?
Anse (Pg 35)
1. hale
2. victuals
1. How does Anse’s monologue about the road express his basic personality?
2. What phrase or idea is repeated throughout this passage that shows Anse’s primary
source of frustration?
3. Anse ends the chapter by saying, “But I just can’t seem to get no heart into it.” How is
this a summary of Anse’s life?
Darl (Pg 39)
1. What image does Darl notice that evokes the Fates?
2. Earlier, Dewey Dell ‘s sexual encounter with Lafe was presented with imagery of fate
and death. How does that continue in this chapter?
Peabody (Pg 41)
1. How is Peabody’s reaction to Anse similar to Tull’s reaction?
2. According to Peabody, whom does death affect the most?
3. What image foreshadows the fact that Addie’s death will happen very soon?
4. How is alliteration used in the last paragraph of the passage to express the emotional
effect of the sound of Cash’s saw?


As I Lay Dying (Day 3)

  • Discuss student’s essays, “What Is A Southerner?”
  • What makes “the South” an interesting setting?
  • Discuss assumptions and stereotypes about the South vs. historical facts.
  • Define Narrator
  • Discuss different types of narrators and the effect of 1st, 2nd, 3rd Narrators and omniscient narrators
  • Discuss reliable and unreliable narrators
  • What does it mean to have multiple voices or perspectives instead of just one?

Read aloud through page 28 (Dewey Dell).

Assign questions and vocabulary: (see attached)

Name____________________________________ Date_______________ Class______

Do Vocabulary and Answer Questions on a separate sheet of paper.

Darl (pg 3)


1. Adze

2. Dilapidation

3. Endued

4. Plumb-line

1. What details about Jewel foreshadow his personality?

2. What is the significance of the comparison of the wooden boards to gold?

3. Explain the spacing of the words “Chuck. Chuck. Chuck”

Cora (Pg 6)


1. Chide

2. Shucks

1. How does Cora contradict herself in this chapter?

2. What detail indicates past tension between Cora and Addie?

Darl (pg 10)


1. brogans

2. gourd

3. hiatus

4. leech

5. myriad

6. orifice

1. What details are used to show the difference between the Bundren family and the Tull family, as far as social position?

2. What is unusual about the way Jewel interacts with his horse?

Jewel (Pg 14)

1. What is unusual about the structure of this novel so far?

2. What does Jewel think Cash’s motive is for building the coffin?

3. What is the significance of the repeated phrase “One lick less”?

Darl (Pg 16)


1. aghast

2. decorous

3. flail

1. What literary device enhances the exact nature of Vernon Tull’s spitting?

2. What details are used to show Anse Bundren’s (Pa’s) incomplete masculinity?

3. What repeated details are you noticing about Jewel?

Cora (Pg 21)


1. coddled

2. frailed

3. partiality

1. What elements are unique to Cora’s narrative style?

2. According to the Tulls, what seems to be the primary motivating ethic for the Bundrens?

Dewey Dell (Pg 26)


1. dassent

1.  In the first section, Darla views Cash’s work as turning the boards into gold as they become their mother’s coffin. How does Dewey Dell view this work?

2. What details about Dewey Dell’s sexual encounter with Lafe link it with fate and death?

01/30/2015: No School. Inclement Weather

01/23 – 29/2015

Argumentative Essay (Day 7-8): Refuting an Argument

Objective(s): Make a counter-argument

01/23/2015:  Assignment: Prompt 1 from TCAP Grade 11 Writing Practice Task III

01/26/2015: Assignment: Prompt 2 from TCAP Grade 11 Writing Practice Task III (in class)


Argumentative Essay (Day 6): Refuting an Argument

Objective(s): Make a counter-argument

  • Students examine the process of refuting an argument: they look at the thesis statement, the main supporting points, and the examples of an opponent’s argument and then try to make a counter argument.
  • The first argument they examine is how life has changed after industrialization.
  • Then, on their own, they try to refute an argument .


Main Lesson:

(1) Hand out the first argument that says the quality of life has decreased after industrialization.

  •  Have the students annotate to pick out the thesis, main arguments, and supporting points.
  1. On page two, decide whether the original arguments are true or false.
  • And then make counter arguments.
  1. Go over the three steps to refuting an argument.  
  • Examine the refutation sentence by sentence and decide whether each sentence is:

   (a) Introducing the opponent’s argument

   (b) Evaluating the opponent’s argument

   (c) Making a counter argument.

  1. Next look at the lexical phrases of making refutations.
  • Go over them with the students. Have the students underline them in the refutation.
  1. Have the students examine the argument for cutting down rain forests.
  • And then, they follow the same process for making a refutation.


Argumentative Essay (Day 5): Weighing an Argument


  • Examine the process of building an argument.
  • Students examine the process of building an argument: they look at the thesis statement, the main supporting points, and the examples needed to complete a coherent argument.
  • The first argument they examine is whether smoking should be banned in public places.
  • Then, on their own, they try to build an argument for using public transportation.


Introduction:Write the title of today’s lesson, Building an Argument.  

Main Lesson:

  • Write thesis statement on the board and explain what thesis statement means.

  • Then write Thesis Statement: Smoking should be banned from public places on the board.

  • Make sure the students understand what that means.

  • Ask them if they agree or if they think it’s a good idea.

  • Now divide the board into two and write the headings Supporting Points and Examples.  

  • Then ask the students why smoking should be banned from public places.  

  • They may give you a supporting point or an example (sometimes it’s hard to distinguish).

  • When you have enough supporting points and examples hand out the worksheet titled Building an Argument.

  • Compare the class discussion with what is written on the worksheet.

  • Have one student read the paragraph on banning smoking and then check that everybody understands the paragraph.  

  • Go over the second page of the worksheet with connecting language.  

  • Briefly explain how each connecting phrase is used and then have the students go back to the paragraph and find all the examples of the connecting language.

  • Finally, write Thesis Statement: People should use public transportation on the board.

  • The students will now do similar analysis of this issue on their own.

  • The teacher will walk around the room providing help and suggestions.

  • For homework, you might want to have the students do a second paragraph with the thesis that alcohol causes many problems in society.


Argumentative Essay (Day 4): Weighing an Argument


  • Evaluate an Argument

Students complete Election Worksheet

  • Review answers on board

Ask students how much they weigh or how much things around them weigh.

  • Now write the lesson title  Weighing an Argument on the board. 

  • Next draw a set of scales on the board.

  • On one side of the scale, write pros and, on the other side, write cons

  • Now ask students what “pros” means and what “cons” means.

  • If they don’t know, tell them pros are the good points and cons are the bad points.

  • This will be better demonstrated by going through the warmup activity.

Write the topic:Should students elect their teachers on the board?

  • Ask the students if this is a good idea. 

  • Then divide the board into two and write pros on one side and cons on the other side.

  • Ask the students what the pros of electing teachers would be.  

  • Next ask the students what the cons are.

Now hand out the sheet Weighing an Argument.

  • Compare what the class wrote with what is on the sheet.

Now discuss the phrases, on the one hand and on the other hand.  

  • Have one student read the paragraph and check that everybody understands the paragraph.

  • Note: The whole paragraph is written using hypothetical speech, or subjunctive mood (would, might). The reason for this is that students don’t actually elect their teachers in reality.

Now have students in pairs choose a topic and follow the same procedure.  

  • Tell them to find at least three pros and three cons for their topic.

  • After that, they have to rewrite their pros and cons into a paragraph.


Argumentative Essay (Day 3): Understanding Rhetorical Strategies in a Persuasive Essay


  • Analyze rhetorical strategies in a speech
  • Explain rhetorical strategies used in the speech to persuade the audience
  • Write a persuasive essay expressing an opinion about the overall effectiveness of a speech

Distribute copies of Severn Suzuki’s Speech at the Earth Summit (1992)

  • Have students read speech aloud (or play audio).
  • Have students to express Suzuki’s claim.

Students use SMART Chart to identify rhetorical terms in speech.

  • Share with class on board


  • Using your SMART Chart and write an essay evaluating the evidence in Suzuki’s speech.

01/19/2015: No School; Federal Holiday (MLK)

01/16/2015: No School; Inclement Weather Day


Argumentative Essay (Day 2): Understanding Rhetorical Elements


  • Identify a variety of rhetorical concepts within a speech.
  • Comprehend the connection between a speaker’s word choice and audience.

Distribute copies of Rhetorical Triangle, SMART Chart, and copy of Coretta Scott King death penalty speech.

  • Have students read speech aloud (or play audio).
  • Students pair up and analyze the speech using Rhetorical Triangle chart.
  • Identify examples of ethos, pathos, logos
  • Students share with class.

Distribute SMART Bank of Rhetorical Terms.

  • Students look up words and add to Academic Vocabulary Notebook.

Have students switch partners and complete SMART Chart for speech.

  • Students share with class.


  • Write an analytical essay discussing the rhetorical terms in the Coretta Scott King speech and their effect on the audience.


Argumentative Essay (Day 1):

  • Objective(s):
    • Identify elements of ethos, pathos, logos in and advertisement

Students define and add following terms to their Academic Vocabulary Notebook:

  • ethos
  • pathos
  • logos

Have student write on the following topic:

Describe a time when you were trying to persuade your parents to let you do something new or risky – a request to which they which they were inclined to say “no” initially. How did you go about persuading them to see things your way? Describe things you said as being either ethos, pathos, or logos.

Have students relate their experiences to the class and have the class decide if it is ethos, pathos, or logos.

Hand out two different car ads from magazines.

(Toyota Highlander, Toyota 4Runner)

  • Ask students to record answers for each ad for the following questions:
  • Who is the target audience? Describe the person who would buy this car.
  • Is ethos, pathos, or logos the most prominent? Why?
  • Is this ad effective for the intended audience?
  • Why does the manufacturer want this particular audience to buy this particular car?

Hand out copies of the Rhetorical Triangle.

  • Have students fill out worksheet for one of the ads.

Put students in groups of three.

  • Give each group a different car ad.(Toyota Camry, Ford Super Duty, Ford Fusion)
  • Each group do one Rhetorical Triangle for their ad.


Analytical Essay (Day 7): Final Essay

Objective: Write an Analytical Essay which explores which of two authors more effectively uses rhetoric to advance his purpose.

  • Students read excerpt from Patrick Henry’s “Speech in the Virginia Convention”
  • Students read and complete Prompt 2 of TCAP Grade 11 Writing Practice Task II (Due by end of class).


Analytical Essay (Day 6): Rhetorical Devices

Objective: Understand Rhetorical Devices

Read a Persuasive Speech

Pre-Lesson: Review Persuasive Rhetoric on pages 226-227

Students write down terms and definitions in their own words


  • Review Patrick Henry Biography (p228)
  • Students complete Vocabulary Study (281) and Vocabulary Practice (282) worksheets
  • Review Text Analysis: Rhetorical Devices & Reading Skill:Reading a Persuasive Speech (p229)
  • Read from “Speech in the Virginia Convention” Handout
  • Answer Comprehension questions 1-3 on page 235 aloud. Assessment
  • Students answer Text Analysis questions 4-7 on page 235 on paper.
    • Assessment: Review answers aloud.
  • Students complete Text Analysis (277, 278) worksheets
  • Remediation: Students complete Question Support (285) worksheet.
  • Enrichment: Use Additional Selection Questions (271) to facilitate further discussion.


Analytical Essay (Day 5):

You have now read the excerpt from Common Sense by Thomas Paine. In this text, Pain develop several central ideas.

Determine two central ideas of the text and write an essay that analyzes how the author develops these ideas over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another. Be sure to cite evidence from the text to support your analysis. Follow the conventions of standard written English.


Analytical Essay (Day 4): Citing Textual Evidence


  • Cite

Read “Two Days With No Phone” aloud

Students complete “Cite Your Evidence” worksheet


Text-Dependent Questions for Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”

  1. What did you learn after reading lines 52 -56? Why is this important to the overall point of the essay?
  2. What is the most important point in lines 37 – 51? How do you know?
  3. What supporting details does the author include to help you learn about England’s relationships with other nations? (Give line numbers for each detail.)
  4. What does the author think about people who argue that Britain is the “parent country” of the American Colonies?


Analytical Essay (Day 3): Rhetorical Devices

Vocabulary: ethos, pathos, logos, rhetoric

  1. Begin the lesson by asking students what needs to be present in order for a speech to occur.

    Though the question may seem puzzling—too hard, or too simple—at first, students will eventually identify, as Aristotle did, the need for a speaker, a message, and an audience.

  2. The class should discuss audience and the importance of identifying the audience for speeches, since they occur in particular moments in time and are delivered to specific audiences.

    This is a good time to discuss the Rhetorical Triangle (Aristotelian Triad) or discuss a chapter on audience from an argumentative textbook.

    You may wish to share information from the lesson Persuasicve Techniques in Advertising and The Rhetorical Triangle from The University of Oklahoma.

  3. Next distribute Queen Elizabeth’s speech to the troops at Tilbury (with questions) and use the speech and its historical context as a model for the processes students will use on the speech they select.

     Provide a bit of background informationon the moment in history.

  4. Then, as a class, go over Queen Elizabeth’s speech and discuss the rhetorical devices in the speech and the purpose for each one.  

    Adjust the level of guidance you provide, depending on your students’ experiences with this type of analysis.

     The questions provide a place to start, but there are many other stylistic devices to discuss in this selection.

  5. Discuss the audience and the author’s manipulation of the audience.  Consider posing questions such as

    • This is a successful speech.  Why?

    • Elizabeth uses all of the appeals – logos, pathos, and ethos – to convince all of her listeners to fight for her from the loyal follower to the greedy mercenary.  How?

    • The tone shifts throughout the selection.  Where?  But more importantly, why?

  6. If time permits, discuss how politicians and speech writers employ rhetorical strategies to influence the opinions of their audience members. Refer to recent elections,

    if possible, and/or bring in flyers and/or brochures.  Here’s one example from the past you could use:

    Martin Luther King, Jr. uses an appeal to pathos in his “I Have a Dream” speech through his historical allusion to Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.” This is particularly effective for his audience of people sympathetic to the cause of African American men and women who would have been especially moved by this particular reference since it had such a significant impact on the lives of African Americans. 


Analytical Essay (Day 2): Analyzing NonFiction

  • Students look up the following terms and add to vocabulary notebook:
    • analyze
    • text
  • Review “Changing the Ecosystem” on screen:
  • Students complete exercises from “Changing the Ecosystem” handouts.
  • Students write a one page summary of “Common Sense” excerpt.


Analytical Essay (Day 1): Finding the Main/Central Idea

MR. WARD 2014 – 2015
Be in your seat
before the bell rings.
Remain in your seat for the entire class period.

Keep any conversation in class to a minimum and relevant to current class topic.
Pick up all trash and place in trashcans at the end of class.

You are not dismissed by the bell.
The bell is to inform the teacher it is time to stop teaching.
Students are dismissed by the teacher.
Please remain in your seat until the teacher dismisses you.

Your cell phone and other electronic devices are to be turned off and put away.
If your cell phone is confiscated, your parents will have to claim it at the office.
All other rules, including dress codes, listed in the student handbook will be enforced. If you are seen with any non-allowable item, you will give that item to the teacher upon request. (Let’s read the dress code aloud).

Demonstrate the same respect and courtesy for others as you expect to receive. (Do not speak while others are speaking. Be polite. Don’t interrupt.)
You are responsible for bringing your own materials to class.

Place assignments in corresponding boxes at the beginning of each class.
If you are absent, you will find the previous days’ assignments in notebooks on table.
Use blue or black ink only for all assignments:
Including quizzes, tests, and essays.
Assignments will be turned in on white paper. Use college ruled paper for essays.
Late assignments will lose 10 points per day.
Tests will be made up after school.

Extracurricular activities, including athletic events, club events and after school jobs do not excuse students from deadlines.
All procedures regarding late assignments will apply.
If you turn in an assignment on time and are dissatisfied with your grade, you may redo the assignment and turn it back in the day after it is returned to you.
You have 5 days following your last day absent to make up any work.
Quizzes cannot be made up. If you are absent on the day a quiz is given, you are excused from it and it will not count against you.
Grades are determined as follows:
TESTS = 40%
ESSAYS = 30%
Fold all assignments lengthwise.
Assignments need to have the following heading printed on the outside of the fold:
Name: first and last
Class: English III or English III
Period: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
Date: month/day/year
Assignment: Essay Title, Page #

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